Why People Think The World Is Flat, And Why Science Says They Are Wrong

Our Earth is not flat and here we provide undeniable evidence!

By: Tesla Telegraph | Guest Post

Flat Earthers rely on various arguments and observations to support their belief that the Earth is flat. Here are some of the key arguments and pieces of “evidence” they often cite:

Antarctica & International Treaties

Some Flat Earthers argue that no one claiming Antarctica as a territory indicates a flat Earth. They view it not as a continent but as a 360-degree landmass made of ice surrounding the planet, holding in the oceans.

They reference international treaties protecting Antarctica, questioning the longevity and purpose of these agreements.

The fact that Flat Earthers often believe that Antarctica is not a real continent but instead an ice wall surrounding the Earth can be disproven. This belief is based on the misconception that the outer edge of the Earth is bounded by a massive wall of ice, which contains the oceans and prevents people from falling off the edge. Influenced by various sources, including social media posts and the imagery of ice walls in popular culture, they view Antarctica not as a continent but as this ice barrier. Some Flat Earthers are even motivated to organize expeditions to explore what they believe to be “the edge of the world”.

However, scientific evidence and geographical understanding completely refute this notion:

  1. Geographical Facts about Antarctica: Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, covering approximately 5.5 million square miles. It is divided into East Antarctica, largely a high ice-covered plateau, and West Antarctica, an ice sheet covering a mountainous archipelago. Contrary to the flat Earth belief, Antarctica is a vast landmass with distinct geographical features, including mountain ranges like the Transantarctic Mountains. The continent’s ice sheet, which covers about 98% of the land, is the largest single piece of ice on Earth, expanding and contracting seasonally. This ice sheet is not a uniform wall but a dynamic and varied ice landscape, with some parts floating on the sea as ice shelves​​​​.
  2. Antarctica’s Role In Global Geography: Antarctica plays a crucial role in the Earth’s geography and climate. It is not an isolated ice wall but a key component of the global climate system. The continent’s ice sheet contains about 90% of the world’s ice and 80% of its fresh water. Its dynamic ice shelves and glaciers continually calve icebergs into the surrounding seas. Additionally, the landmass of Antarctica, if devoid of ice, would consist of a giant peninsula and an archipelago of mountainous islands, indicative of a typical continental structure rather than an artificial barrier​​​​.
  3. International Agreements & Scientific Research: The Antarctic Treaty, signed in 1959, established Antarctica as a scientific preserve and prohibited military activities on the continent. This treaty, and subsequent agreements like the Madrid Protocol, underscore the international community’s recognition of Antarctica as a continent dedicated to peaceful scientific research, not a mysterious or off-limits ice wall. Scientific exploration and research in Antarctica have been ongoing for decades, contributing significantly to our understanding of Earth’s climate, geology, and ecosystems​​.

In summary, the Flat Earther belief in an ice wall surrounding the Earth is based on misconceptions and a lack of understanding of Antarctica’s true nature and role in our planet’s geography and climate. Scientific evidence and extensive research conducted in Antarctica clearly demonstrate that it is a dynamic, diverse continent integral to Earth’s environmental systems, not the edge of a flat Earth.

Observation of The Horizon

Flat Earthers often claim that the horizon appears flat when viewed from locations such as over Lake Michigan towards Chicago, using this observation as evidence against the curvature of the Earth. They argue that if the Earth were a globe, the horizon would not appear flat. However, scientific explanations and observations refute this claim:

  1. Height Required To Observe Earth’s Curvature: To observe Earth’s curved horizon, one must be at least 10,668 meters (about 35,000 feet) above its surface. At typical human eye-level heights, even on tall buildings or mountains, this curvature is not visible due to the vast size of the Earth. Ancient cultures, lacking the technology to reach such heights, perceived the world as flat and stationary, a notion reinforced by the apparent movements of the sun, moon, and stars relative to a flat horizon​​.
  2. Earth’s Curvature & The Horizon: The existence of Earth’s curvature is why we have a horizon. The horizon is the imaginary line after which an object lying on the ground would be covered by Earth’s curvature. The topography of the region, the height of the observer’s eyes, and atmospheric conditions affect how the horizon appears. The higher the observation point, the farther one can see. For example, from a beach with an average human eye height of 161 cm, the horizon lies at about 4,530 meters. Objects farther than this distance, lying on the surface of the water, would be covered and not visible due to Earth’s curvature​​.
  3. Misconception of Horizon Rising To Eye Level: There is a common misconception that the horizon always appears at human eye level, regardless of the observer’s altitude. However, this is not accurate. In both the globe-earth and flat-earth models, the horizon is expected to fall below eye level as the observer rises above sea level. Airplanes’ Head-Up Displays (HUDs), which include horizontal lines showing the eye level position, clearly indicate that the horizon falls below these lines as the plane rises. These HUDs are used by pilots to fly straight and are a reliable indicator of the true horizon position relative to eye level. This can be further tested with a camera equipped with a level in a high-altitude flight​​.

In summary, the perception of a flat horizon from typical human viewpoints is due to the immense size of the Earth and the limited altitude from which most observations are made. Scientific evidence, including observations from high altitudes and the application of geometric principles, clearly demonstrates the curvature of the Earth, contradicting the flat Earth theory’s claim based on horizon observation.

Shaquille O’Neal Explains To The World Why He Believes The Earth Is Flat

Water Level

Flat Earthers argue that the surface of large bodies of water appears flat, not curved. They believe this demonstrates the Earth’s flatness, as water should conform to the curvature of the Earth if it were spherical. This belief dates back to experiments in the 19th century, such as the Bedford Level experiment​​​​.

This argument by Flat Earthers that the surface of large bodies of water appears flat and therefore indicates the Earth’s flatness is scientifically inaccurate due to several factors:

  1. Scale & Curvature Perception: The Earth’s diameter is about 12,742 km (7,918 miles), which means its curvature is very gentle and difficult to observe with the naked eye over short distances. The scale at which humans typically observe bodies of water (like lakes or the ocean) is too small compared to the Earth’s size to visibly detect the curvature.
  2. The Bedford Level Experiment Flaws: The Bedford Level experiment, conducted in the 19th century, is often cited by Flat Earthers. However, this experiment had significant methodological flaws. It was conducted over a small distance (about 6 miles) in a canal, where the effects of atmospheric refraction (bending of light due to the Earth’s atmosphere) were not adequately considered. This refraction can cause distant objects to appear higher or lower than they actually are, distorting the true curvature.
  3. Physics of Water & Gravity: The fundamental principle of gravity states that it pulls objects towards the centre of mass. On a spherical Earth, this means that water will be pulled towards the centre from all directions, resulting in a curved surface that conforms to the Earth’s shape. If the Earth were flat, there would be no consistent direction for gravity to pull the water, leading to an inconsistent and unstable water surface, which is not what we observe.
  4. Empirical Evidence of Earth’s Curvature: There is substantial empirical evidence that demonstrates the Earth’s curvature. For instance, during a lunar eclipse, the Earth casts a round shadow on the Moon. Additionally, different constellations are visible from different latitudes on Earth, which would not be the case if the Earth were flat.
  5. Geodetic Surveys & Satellite Images: Modern geodetic surveys and satellite imagery clearly show the Earth’s curvature. These methods use advanced technology to measure the Earth’s shape and provide conclusive evidence that it is a sphere, not flat.

In conclusion, the argument that the flat appearance of water surfaces indicates a flat Earth is based on a misinterpretation of observational data and a lack of consideration for the principles of physics, particularly the scale of Earth’s curvature and the effects of gravity. Modern scientific understanding and empirical evidence overwhelmingly support the conclusion that the Earth is spherical.

Lack of Authentic Pictures of Earth

Some argue that there are no genuine pictures of Earth from space and that existing photos are digitally altered or photoshopped​​.

The claim that there are no genuine pictures of Earth from space and that existing photos are digitally altered or photoshopped is not supported by the evidence available. This claim can be countered by several key points:

  1. Historical Space Missions: The Apollo missions of the 1960s and 1970s provided some of the first genuine photos of Earth from space. For instance, the famous “Blue Marble” photograph taken by the Apollo 17 crew in 1972 is one of the most widely distributed images in human history. The technology to digitally alter images in the way we can today did not exist at that time, supporting the authenticity of these photographs.
  2. Satellite Imagery: Numerous satellites orbiting Earth continually capture images. These include weather satellites like the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), polar orbiting satellites like those from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Earth observation satellites like the Landsat series. These satellites provide critical data for weather forecasting, environmental monitoring, and geographic mapping. The consistency of images from these diverse sources further corroborates their authenticity.
  3. International Space Station (ISS) Live Feeds: The International Space Station, a collaborative project involving multiple space agencies, offers live video feeds of the Earth. These live feeds show the planet from space in real-time, making it implausible to suggest that all these images are digitally altered or photoshopped.
  4. Advancements In Digital Image Processing: While it is true that digital images of Earth might be processed to enhance clarity, colour balance, and contrast, this does not equate to them being fabricated or falsified. Image processing is a standard practice in photography and does not inherently alter the authenticity of the underlying image.
  5. Independent Verification by Amateur Astronomers: Amateur astronomers, using high-powered telescopes and other equipment, have captured images of the Earth and other celestial bodies that are consistent with those taken by space agencies. This independent verification by enthusiasts and scientists outside of government or organizational control further supports the authenticity of space-based images of Earth.
  6. International Collaboration In Space Exploration: Space exploration is a global endeavour, with agencies from different countries (like NASA in the U.S., ESA in Europe, Roscosmos in Russia, ISRO in India, CNSA in China, and others) participating. The agreement among these diverse and sometimes competing entities on the appearance of Earth from space adds credibility to the images being genuine.

In summary, the claim of a lack of authentic pictures of Earth from space is contradicted by a wealth of evidence from historical space missions, ongoing satellite imagery, live feeds from the ISS, standard practices in digital image processing, independent verification by amateur astronomers, and international collaboration in space exploration. This collective evidence strongly supports the authenticity of photographs of Earth from space.

Sun’s Rays

The argument here is based on the observation of sun rays. Flat Earthers claim that if the sun were 93 million miles away, its rays would come in straight, not at angles as often observed​​.

The claim by Flat Earthers that the sun’s rays coming in at angles, rather than straight, disproves the sun being 93 million miles away is based on a misunderstanding of atmospheric optics and perspective. This claim can be scientifically rebutted as follows:

  1. Perspective & Crepuscular Rays: The angled appearance of sun rays, often seen as crepuscular rays, is a result of perspective, the same phenomenon that causes parallel lines, like railroad tracks, to appear to converge in the distance. Although the sun’s rays are essentially parallel due to the vast distance of the sun from Earth, they appear to diverge because of perspective. This is a common optical illusion.
  2. Atmospheric Scattering: The Earth’s atmosphere scatters sunlight, which can make the sun’s rays appear to come at various angles. This scattering is influenced by particles in the atmosphere, like dust and water droplets, which diffract and reflect sunlight, causing the rays to appear divergent.
  3. Observations from Space: Observations of the sun from space, where the Earth’s atmosphere does not interfere, show that sunlight comes in parallel rays. This is consistent with the understanding that the sun is far enough away for its rays to be essentially parallel by the time they reach Earth.
  4. Scientific Consistency with Other Observations: The distance of the sun from Earth has been confirmed by various independent methods, including radar ranging, parallax measurements, and observations of the transit of Venus. These measurements are consistent with the understanding that the sun’s rays are parallel when they reach Earth.
  5. Photographic Evidence: Photographs of sun rays taken from high altitudes or from airplanes often show them to be more parallel than they appear from the ground, supporting the idea that the appearance of angled rays is largely a perspective effect.
  6. Physics of Light: The principles of geometric optics, a well-established field of physics, explain that light rays from a distant source (like the sun) are parallel. This is consistent with the sun being 93 million miles away.

In conclusion, the claim that the observation of angled sun rays disproves the sun being 93 million miles away is based on a misinterpretation of visual phenomena and atmospheric effects. Scientific understanding of light, perspective, and atmospheric optics, along with empirical evidence from space and independent astronomical measurements, consistently supports the reality that the sun’s rays are parallel and that the sun is approximately 93 million miles away from Earth.

Biblical Interpretation & Conspiracy Theories

The claim that the Bible supports a flat, immovable Earth and that modern Flat Earthers’ distrust of official narratives and mainstream science is valid can be addressed from both a theological and scientific perspective:

  1. Biblical Interpretation: The interpretation of the Bible as supporting a flat Earth is based on a literal reading of certain passages. However, many theologians and scholars argue that the Bible’s language is often metaphorical or symbolic, particularly when describing the natural world. The Bible was written in a pre-scientific era, and its primary purpose is spiritual and moral guidance, not providing scientific descriptions of the universe. Most mainstream Christian denominations and Jewish traditions do not support a literal interpretation of the Bible in matters of natural science.
  2. Historical Context of Biblical Texts: The understanding of the natural world during the times when biblical texts were written was vastly different from today’s scientific knowledge. It’s important to consider the historical and cultural context of these texts. Biblical descriptions of the Earth and the heavens reflect the cosmology of ancient times and should not be taken as literal scientific statements.
  3. Scientific Method & Evidence: Modern science is based on the scientific method, which involves observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and revision. The overwhelming scientific evidence supports a spherical Earth, including satellite images, circumnavigation, and the way ships and horizons work. Science welcomes scepticism and questioning, but the questioning of established scientific facts by Flat Earthers often lacks empirical evidence and fails to provide a viable alternative model that can consistently explain natural phenomena.
  4. Conspiracy Theories & Distrust In Institutions: The Flat Earth belief is often linked to broader conspiracy theories involving distrust of government agencies, especially NASA, and major events and institutions. These conspiracy theories typically lack substantial evidence and are often based on misinterpretations or selective use of information. Such theories can be appealing as they offer simplistic explanations for complex issues and foster a sense of community among believers. However, they are not grounded in rigorous scientific methodology.
  5. Psychological & Sociological Aspects: The adherence to Flat Earth beliefs and conspiracy theories can also be understood from psychological and sociological perspectives. These beliefs often provide a sense of identity and belonging, and they can be reinforced by confirmation bias, where individuals seek out information that supports their beliefs and ignore contradictory evidence.
  6. Education & Critical Thinking: Addressing Flat Earth beliefs and similar conspiracy theories effectively often involves education and promoting critical thinking skills. It’s important to understand how scientific knowledge is generated, validated, and revised. Teaching people to critically evaluate sources of information and to understand the scientific process can help counter misinformation and pseudoscientific beliefs.

In summary, the interpretation of the Bible as supporting a flat Earth is not widely accepted among theologians and scholars, and it contrasts sharply with the substantial scientific evidence supporting a spherical Earth. The distrust of mainstream science and adherence to conspiracy theories among some Flat Earthers often stem from a lack of understanding of the scientific method, psychological factors, and social dynamics, rather than from a rational evaluation of empirical evidence.

It’s important to note that these arguments are based on misconceptions, mis-understandings of science, and selective interpretations of observations. The scientific consensus, based on extensive evidence from various fields, strongly supports the Earth being an oblate spheroid.

*  *  *


Discovery: Unknown 20-Limbed Creature Found Near Antarctica

Recently, off the coast of Antarctica, scientists have captured a peculiar sea creature.

As reported by the Daily Mail, this creature possesses a unique strawberry-like body shape and boasts 20 limbs.

Scientists consider this to be a rarity, as such a morphology is nearly unparalleled in the realm of marine organisms.

The discovery of this extraordinary creature predates the onset of the global coronavirus pandemic.

Continue reading …

*  *  *

READ MORE: 600 Million Year Old Fossils of Tiny Humanoids Found In Antarctica

Oh Boy! Hidden Pyramid In Antarctica Discovered By History Channel

Enjoyed it? Please take a moment to show your support for Collective Spark.

We’d love to hear from you! If you have a comment about this article or if you have a tip for a future Collective Spark Story please let us know below in the comment section.

Tesla Telegraph

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *