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The Big Egyptian Sphinx Cover Up: Hidden Chambers, An Unexcavated Mound And Endless Denial

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Photo Credit: Vivant Denon’s

In 1935, Egypt was still the main draw for archaeologists digging for answers. It was hardly more than a decade since the British Egyptologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen on November 4, 1922, that had lain nearly undisturbed for over 3,000 years. Yet that is another amazing story still to be investigated. However, right now, our attention is focused on the latest attempt to hide the real ancient history of an unknown civilization that left us with great wonders both above and below the sands of the Giza Plateau.

The moment Howard Carter opens the tomb of Tutankhamun ( public domain )
The moment Howard Carter opens the tomb of Tutankhamun (public domain)
Ancient Lost City Unearthed In Egypt

The first news of a ‘Secret City’ hit the World Press in the first week of March 1935.  By July of that year, much more had been found and the Sunday Express ran an article by Edward Armytage who had just returned to England from Egypt where he had watched the excavation of an ancient Egyptian city that was then thought to date back 4000 years.

The unearthing of a lost city in Egypt was reported in many papers in 1935, including this report in the Sunday Express on 7 July, 1935 (public domain)
The unearthing of a lost city in Egypt was reported in many papers in 1935, including this report in the Sunday Express on 7 July, 1935 (public domain)
Media Silence

…….then came silence, as if every living Egyptologist had lost all interest in this wonderful underground metropolis. All their articles during the ensuing years were cantered on tombs of queens and shafts that had sunk deep into the ground to burial tombs some time during the 24 th Dynasty, which was as late as 732BC to 716BC. It is very odd that such an immense discovery of a whole underground city dating back at least 4,000 years was ignored completely in favour of a late period Dynasty that almost passed without notice.

Denial Of Previous Discoveries

That was some eighty years ago and today we have come up against a similar ‘rose granite block wall’, in the person of the former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, Zahi Hawass, who held that position until Egypt’s revolution in 2011 that toppled Hosni Mubarak—and also ended Hawass’ controversial reign as the supreme chief of all Egypt’s antiquities. However, he still has his ‘finger in the pie’ so to speak. Much has been written about the Egyptian ‘Indiana Jones’ who presents a big smile at one moment but red-raged faced the next when any unwelcome question is posed to him. This side of his character is well documented in Robert Bauval and Ahmed Osman’s book “Breaking the Mirror of Heaven”.

However, such a temperament doesn’t duly explain why Zahi Hawass has so publicly announced that there is nothing at all below the Sphinx, neither any tunnel nor a single chamber, when there have many photos of him entering descending shafts from the head of the Sphinx and another at the far rear of the Lion Body. Are we supposed to forget completely what we have seen several times in the past and accept such denials without question?

Zawi Hawass examining a chamber at the rear of the sphinx ( YouTube screenshot / Bright Insight )
Zawi Hawass examining a chamber at the rear of the sphinx (YouTube screenshot / Bright Insight)
Statements Contradict Photographic Evidence

Apparently, he brushed off such enquiries of hidden tunnels under the Giza Plateau and chambers under the Sphinx by saying that it wasn’t possible to look deeper, as the chambers were either blocked or full of water. That may well be the case, though we can see from one of the photos showing a rear downward shaft from the side of the Sphinx that the floor far below is quite dry.  

We do know that Hawass had climbed down ladders from the rear entrance of the Sphinx, into a deep chamber on a middle layer and then even further down to a bottom chamber which apparently contained a very large sarcophagus and that was filled with water, as these scenes are all in a documentary film made by Fox. It is hard to imagine how he could possibly think that he could later deny all that he had earlier accomplished.  

Zawi Hawass descending down a shaft towards a chamber filled with water that contained a large sarcophagus. Credit: Fox
Zawi Hawass descending down a shaft towards a chamber filled with water that contained a large sarcophagus. Credit: Fox
A Hole IN THE Sphinx’s Head

Around 1798, Vivant Denon etched an image of the sphinx, although he hadn’t copied it that well. However, he no doubt knew that there was a hole on the top of its head as he had drawn an image of a man being pulled out.

Vivant Denon’s sketch of the sphinx in 1798 depicts a man being pulled out of a hole in the sphinx’s head (public domain)
Vivant Denon’s sketch of the sphinx in 1798 depicts a man being pulled out of a hole in the sphinx’s head (public domain)

A sketch can hardly be used as proof, but in the 1920’s an aerial photo of the sphinx taken from a hot air balloon showed that there is such an opening on the top of its head.

1920s aerial photo shows a hole in the sphinx’s head (Public domain)
1920s aerial photo shows a hole in the sphinx’s head (Public domain)
The Enigma Of The Sphinx’s Head

It seems quite clear from the totally different construction materials and color of the Sphinx head, which we believe is not rock, but some type of man-made substance compared to its limestone and eroded body, that the head and face of the Sphinx must have been changed from its original shape long after the monument was first carved. There is hardly any erosion to the head compared to its body.           

The sides of the headdress are quite smooth and we only need glance at the mythical creature to spot the lighter color of the body compared to the darkness of the head.

According to Tony Bushby in his “The Secret in The Bible” a badly fragmented Sumerian cylinder tells a tale that could easily be taken as having happened at Giza and involving a beast that had a lion head with a tunnel entrance hidden by sand. Everything now points to the Sphinx body having been sculpted out of natural stone when there was frequent heavy rainfall and that takes us back to about the same time that Robert Bauval and Robert Schoch have calculated for the construction of the Orion’s Belt Pyramids, i.e. circa 10,450BC.

The head of the sphinx appears to be made from different material to the rest of the body, and does not show the same level of erosion as the rest of the body ( CC by SA ).
The head of the sphinx appears to be made from different material to the rest of the body, and does not show the same level of erosion as the rest of the body (CC by SA).
Two Sphinxes?

There have been sketches of the Giza (the word Gisa in Ancient Egyptian means ‘Hewn Stone’) complex from as far back as 1665 and some do show two heads peering out of the sands, one usually having female features.

The Great Sphinx of Giza in Olfert Dapper, Description de l'Afrique (1665)- note the depiction of two sphinxes (public domain)
The Great Sphinx of Giza in Olfert Dapper, Description de l’Afrique (1665)- note the depiction of two sphinxes (public domain)

It was an ancient Egyptian practice to inscribe two lions, which they called Akerw, next to their doorways for heavenly protection and that would lead us directly to a mound near the sphinx, which Gerry has identified and measured. Could this mound contain the buried body of a second sphinx?

One would have thought that this mysterious, large, covered shape so close to the sphinx would have been greeted with great enthusiasm by the Egyptian authorities, yet Hawass and Mark Lehner didn’t want to listen to his theory, according to a reliable source.

Giza Plateau with proposed buried second sphinx mound encircled. ( Travel Around the World)
Giza Plateau with proposed buried second sphinx mound encircled. (Travel Around the World)

Gerry had contacted someone in a renowned institute in Cairo that had equipment that could detect objects under the sand. That person applied for a permit to the then Supreme Council of Antiquities to investigate the mound, but they didn’t respond. Apparently, no one else was granted a license to investigate the specific area of the mound where we believe a Second Sphinx could be unearthed. No doubt they had a reason for it!

Why The Denial?

Why would those two Egyptologists be so alarmed by the suggestion that there was something that had been missed for centuries? Is it possible that they don’t want to reveal something beneath that mound? It isn’t reasonable that anyone should have so much objection to any kind of probe or even a simple aerial photograph being taken, which might lead to the discovery of yet another amazing wonder of the world and a wonder that would draw many more thousands of tourists to Egypt. They won’t even admit to ever having examined the mystery mound themselves, and surely had this been done they would be the first to say so.

A few years ago, Zahi Hawass met the Foreign Press Association in Cairo to vent his frustration with a group of pseudo-scientists whose personal attack, through television and other media, had escalated to the point where it had become threatening. Apparently, he was worried that a NBC interview would support and publicize their ideas, which he suggests were purely for personal gain.

He apparently said in a statement:

“I want to talk about things that do not make any sense,”

His gesture expressed his increased frustration with what he commonly classified as “pyramidiots” – those with views greatly at variance with the established scientific community.

“They are saying secret excavations…are going on around the Sphinx and are not being revealed. This is definitely not so.”

Zahi Hawass is not only a great showman and probably the most knowledgeable man in the world about ancient Egypt, he has also achieved a lot to promote tourism for his country. However, he appears to have an agenda, and that is to keep in place the conventional understanding of ancient Egyptian history, no matter how many new findings contradict what is currently believed to be true.

By Malcolm Hutton & Gerry Cannon, co-authors of the forthcoming book “The Giza Plateau Secrets and a Second Sphinx Revealed”. Read more about the second sphinx and Gerry ‘s quest for the Ark of the Covenant at: www.gerrysarkquest.com

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Archeology

Fortified Hellenistic Center And Underwater Site Found In Bulgaria

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Fortified Hellenistic Center And Underwater Site Found In Bulgaria
Photo Credit: Burgas Municipality

In Bulgaria, a fortified Hellenistic center has been found on the country’s Black Sea coast. A fortress has been discovered on the shore and, what’s more, a large underwater site has been located in the waters nearby the coastal fortress site. The experts believe they may have located an important fortified Hellenistic center that could provide new insights on this important historical period.

Experts from the National History Museum in Sofia and the local Regional History Museum in Burgas carried out investigations on Cape Chiroza. They concentrated their work on the area between the village of Chengene Skele, on Burgas Bay, and the Kraimorie district. Unusually, the archaeological investigations involved both land-based and marine archaeology.

The Clues Found At This New Ancient Hellenistic Stronghold

On a headland that overlooks a bay, a team of archaeologists found a massive structure. It was theorized, based on the scale, that it was a stronghold, especially given that there was an outline of some walls and a ditch, which was probably a moat. Archaeology News Network quotes a statement from the team that “The fortification had an area of 800 square meters and was protected by a stone wall and a large moat.” The moat was 4 feet (1.3 meters) deep and was 12 feet (4 meters) wide.

A few of the ancient decorated ceramic fragments found at the Cape Chiroza site. (Burgas Municipality)

An enormous range of ceramic artifacts were uncovered on the headland. According to a statement “An indicator of the dating of the site is the ceramic material,” reports The Sofia Globe. “Some 260 fragments of ceramics have been excavated and “40% are made of Thracian  ceramics – vessels made by hand, with plastic decoration and a polished surface.” The Thracians were a people who dominated much of the Eastern Balkans for centuries. They were a martial people, with probably the most famous individual from this ethnicity being Spartacus.

How The Ceramic Artifacts Were Dated

Among the ceramics found were pieces of amphorae, which were used to store products such as wine. Also found were pieces of imported and locally made cups and some lacquered ceramics with ornate decorations including embossed work. Some of the amphorae came from the Aegean island of Kos and some of the other pieces came from wares that originated in Pergamum, a Hellenistic center in what is now Turkey.

There was no organic material found at the site and this meant that carbon dating was not possible. However, given the large number of ceramic artifacts found, experts were able to date the center. Sofia News Network reports that “A reliable marker for dating the site are the handles, the bottoms of bone amphorae (from the island of Kos) and the ceramic fragments of presumed origin from the area of ancient Pergamum.” Based on this it was established that the fortress was built and occupied in the 1st or 2nd century BC.

Fortified Hellenistic Centres: A Linked Defensive Network

The discovery of the remains of the fortified Hellenistic center demonstrates that there were a series of Greek fortresses on the cape, possibly part of a defensive network. This find roughly dates from the same time as the already known Hellenistic fortified locations found at “Primorsko, Sinemorets, Brodilovo and Izvor,” according to the Archaeology News Network article. There is the possibility that the remains on the cape are those of an enclosure from a religious sanctuary, which were common in the classical world.

Elated researchers posing with a perfect amphorae and a worked stone found underwater, just off the coast of Cape Chiroza. (Burgas Municipality)

An underwater archaeological survey was carried out over the summer. The archaeologists found a structure that covered an area of .25 acres (0.1 hectares) under the sea waterThe Sofia Globe reports that “Several scatterings of stones were found on an underwater terrace east of Cape Chiroza at a depth of four meters.” Many stones that clearly show that they had been processed, because of their shape, were photographed.

One of the amphorae, in perfect condition, found just off the coast from the fortified Hellenistic center recently found at Cape Chiroza. (Burgas Municipality)
Underwater Finds: Ancient Tiles, A Stone Anchor, Amphorae

Interestingly, many ceramics from buildings, specifically tiles, were found at the underwater site. Some were Greek in origin and some were “Roman tegulas and imbrexes (overlapping roof tiles used in ancient Greek and Roman architecture as a waterproof and durable roof covering),” reports Archaeology News Network. Some tiles from late antiquity period (4th to 6th century AD) were also identified and this may indicate that the center was occupied for many years.

In total, 100 ceramic pieces were found, a stone anchor, almost intact amphorae, and a cannonball. The Sofia Globe, quoting a statement from the authorities, stated that “At this stage of the underwater research, it is assumed that the site at the foot of Cape Chiroza covered an area of 2000 square meters.” Further investigations are planned for both the land and underwater sites. This may reveal more about the history of the fortress and the settlement, their role in the region, and why they were abandoned.

This article (Fortified Hellenistic Center And Underwater Site Found In Bulgaria) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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A Viking Buried In A Strange Way Puzzles Archeologists

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Photo Credit: Getty

Paul SeaburnGuest Writer

We know more about dead Vikings than we do about live ones, which makes interpreting graves, burial rites and funeral artifacts all the more important. Take the grave discovered recently while excavating Viking burial grounds in Vinjeøra, Norway, so European highway 39 can be extended through the town. His remains were found with his sword on his left side, rather than the traditional placement on a Viking’s right side. Why is this unusual and why are archaeologists struggling to explain it?

“The fact that he was buried with a full set of weapons tells us that this was a warrior, and in Viking times and the early Middle Ages, most warriors were free men who owned their own farms.”

Raymond Sauvage, an archaeologist at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) University Museum and project manager for the excavation, explains to Science Norway something that normally doesn’t get mentioned on the various Viking TV shows or in movies – that the men were required to acquire their own weapons. The shield could be build and the axe was probably the first obtained since that was something that could also be used on the farm, but spears and swords had to be forged by a blacksmith and obviously cost more. Nothing unusual so far.

“What makes this grave a little special is that the sword is on what we assume was the deceased’s left side.”

Why would this be “special”? The sword is normally sheathed and carried on the left side so the warrior can grab it with his right hand. However, Viking men have always been found buried with their swords on the right side – not so they can carry them in the afterlife but because the Viking culture believed the afterlife was a mirror image of life. Thus, the dead Vikings were ready to fight again in the mirror world… except for this one.

“Maybe he was left-handed, and they took that into account for the afterlife? It’s hard to say.”

Of course! This was an opposite-handed Viking – Erik the Left perhaps? Being left-handed may have given him an advantage like a modern baseball pitcher and made him a better warrior because this Viking was found buried in an honoured place – a ditch. A what?

“We’ve seen lots of examples of reused graves on this burial ground. People were buried in the same grave or partly inside older graves. It was obviously important to lie next to or in the burial mounds and the ring ditches around them.”

This Viking was buried on his farm to protect it and his descendants – another tradition that goes against the commonly depicted Viking burial in a flaming ship at sea. Speaking of flaming burials, another grave found nearby contained the ashes of a female from an earlier time that was buried with a large number of bones. The researchers don’t know if they belonged to the woman or were placed there because they had magical powers from another person.

Whether the explanations for these questions are found or not, the graves show once again that the deaths of Vikings were as interesting as their lives, and may give us clues about how those lives were lived. While fighting and pillaging make better TV shows and movies, the Real Lives of Viking World just might be more interesting.

Recommended Articles by Paul Seaburn
About the Author

Paul Seaburn is the editor at Mysterious Universe and its most prolific writer. He’s written for TV shows such as “The Tonight Show”, “Politically Incorrect” and an award-winning children’s program. He’s been published in “The New York Times” and “Huffington Post” and has co-authored numerous collections of trivia, puzzles and humour. His “What in the World!” podcast is a fun look at the latest weird and paranormal news, strange sports stories and odd trivia. Paul likes to add a bit of humour to each MU post he crafts. After all, the mysterious doesn’t always have to be serious.

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Stone Age Rock Tombs Found Near Göbekli Tepe Provide More Ancient Clues

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Stone Age Rock Tombs Found Near Göbekli Tepe Provide More Ancient Clues
Photo Credit: AA News Broadcasting System (HAS)

Göbekli Tepe, in Turkey, is regarded as one of the most important Stone Age archaeological sites in the world. It has changed our view of how civilization developed. Recently, archaeologists working not far from Göbekli Tepe have made further discoveries related to the Stone Age complex

They have found a large number of Stone Age rock tombs that could help to solve some of the mysteries of this prehistoric complex and the area that surrounds it. The excavation of the Stone Age rock tombs is near to the place where a Stone Age figure known as the Balıklıgöl statue or Urfa man, dating to 9000 BC, was also found.

Experts from the Şanlıurfa Metropolitan Municipality were collaborating with personnel from the Culture and Tourism Ministry, who were investigating the Kizilkoyun Necropolis area, when they discovered the Stone Age rock tombs. They came across the burial site in the Old Town of Şanliurfa, not far from where some stunning mosaics of hunting Amazons were previously unearthed. The rock tombs are believed to have been part of the same cultural area as Göbekli Tepe.

The Urfa Man Is Much Like The Eye-Idols Found At Göbekli Tepe

The enigmatic Urfa man figure appears to be related to the distinctive T-shaped statues found at Göbekli Tepe, in particular in their ‘”double V-shape neck design”, according to Ancient Origins. The haunting empty staring eyes of the Urfa man have been likened to the so-called eye-idols found at Göbekli Tepe. The Urfa man figure is about 6 feet (1.80 meters) high and was most likely used for ceremonial or religious purposes and was possibly an idol. Hurriyet Daily News states that it has been called by experts the “oldest naturalistic life-sized sculpture of a human.”

The Urfa Man with its empty eyes, which was found not far from the recently discovered Stone Age rock tombs in Turkey. (Alistair Coombs)

According to Zeynel Abidin Beyazgül, the mayor of the Şanlıurfa Metropolitan Municipality, “a total of 662 shanty houses were demolished in the area and 61 rock tombs unearthed.” The rock tombs come in a variety of sizes and they appear to have been built later than Göbekli Tepe. However, it is believed that these tombs will provide evidence on the prehistoric site and its builders.

One of the so-called eye-idols found at Göbekli Tepe. (Metropolitan Museum of Art / CC0)
The Stone Age Mysteries of the Incredible Göbekli Tepe Site

Göbekli Tepe is a tell or massive earthen mound in the south-east of Turkey, a 30-minute drive from the city of Şanlıurfa. Göbekli Tepe dates to approximately 10,000 BC and was built and used by Stone Age people. It is home to the world’s oldest megalithic structure , which is comprised of 200 monumental T-shaped standing stones arranged in circular formations. The function of the site is not known but it was probably religious, and many view it as the world’s oldest temple. Göbekli Tepe is providing new evidence for the development of civilization and has already proven that Stone Age societies were much more sophisticated than once thought. In 2018, the site was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site, but much of it is unexcavated and there are still many mysteries surrounding this incredible site.

The massive Göbekli Tepe earthen mound in the south-east of Turkey, a 30-minute drive from the city of Şanlıurfa, where the Stone Age rock tombs were recently discovered. (Teomancimit / CC BY-SA 3.0)

This is what makes the recent finding of the Stone Age rock tombs so exciting.  The Mayor of Şanlıurfa told Yeni Şafak “We believe that the excavations we will carry out in the area where artifacts similar to the discoveries in Göbekli Tepe are going to be very significant.” Any links between the tombs at Kizilkoyun, and the UNESCO Heritage site is important because it could throw new light on Stone Age civilizations. The Mayor is quoted by Turkish Express as saying that “the excavations around the Kızılkoyun Necropolis will contribute to solving the mystery in surrounding Göbekli Tepe.” The Göbekli Tepe burial site is famous for the variety of its burials and funerary art.

More Discoveries Expected From The Kizilkoyun Necropolis

Investigations at the Kizilkoyun Necropolis area Stone Age rock tombs will continue, and any artifacts found at the site will be interpreted to determine if they are connected to Göbekli Tepe. There is great hope that the digs at the rock tomb site will solve some of the Göbekli Tepe öysteries that are still unsolved.

The mayor is quoted by Hurriyet Daily News as saying that “Şanlıurfa is already preparing for more discoveries, let humanity expect new surprises.” The burial ground is only one of many historic locations in the Turkish city, known as Edessa in ancient times, a strategically important center to several empires in classical antiquity.

This article (Stone Age Rock Tombs Found Near Göbekli Tepe Provide More Ancient Clues) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Nineveh: Exploring The Ruins Of The Crown City Of Ancient Assyria

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Nineveh
Image Credit: CC BY SA 4.0

Nineveh was the last capital of the Assyrian Empire, as well as its most populous city. It has even been claimed that Nineveh was the most populated city in the world for a period. In recent times, the remains of Nineveh have suffered much damage as a consequence of the war that has been raging on in the region.

Nineveh – Mashki Gate. (Omar Siddeeq Yousif/ CC BY SA 4.0)
Beginnings

The ruins of Nineveh are located on the outskirts of what is today the northern Iraqi city of Mosul, on the east bank of the Tigris River. Archaeological excavations have shown that the city has its origins in the 7th millennium BC. During that time, the site was occupied by a small Neolithic settlement.

The history of Nineveh in the subsequent millennia is told through the material culture found at the site. The pottery assemblage found at the site, for instance, consists of Hassuna-Samarra and Tall Halaf painted pottery, which were characteristic of northern Mesopotamia during the Chalcolithic Age. On the other hand, clay sickles of the type used during the Ubaid period suggest that the pre-historic inhabitants were in contact with their southern neighbours.

Relief from Nineveh, about 695 BC of a hunting scene. Alabaster relief. Pergamon Museum. (Ealdgyth/ CC BY 3.0)

From a small settlement, Nineveh grew into a town of some importance by the early part of the 2nd millennium BC. During this time, it was a cult center of the goddess Ishtar, and it was due to its religious function that the town became significant. Several centuries later, the city was a vassal of the Hurrian Kingdom of Mitanni but it was subsequently captured by the Assyrians.

It seems that the status of Nineveh did not change much during the Middle Assyrian Empire. Whilst inscriptions of such Middle Assyrian rulers as Shalmaneser I and Tiglath-Pileser I have been found on the city’s Acropolis, there is little evidence to suggest that the Assyrians were carrying out large building projects in Nineveh during this time.

The Neo-Assyrian Period

It was only during the Neo-Assyrian Empire that Nineveh became a city of great importance. The city’s architectural expansion began during the reign of Ashurnasirpal II in the 9th century BC and reached its peak during the reign of Sennacherib in the following century. Ashurnasirpal and his successors founded new temples and palaces and repaired older ones. It was, however, Sennacherib who made Nineveh the new capital and initiated a building project that befitted the city’s new-found status.

The Temple of the Sun in Nineveh (Iraq). (Paul K/ CC BY 2.0)

The king’s building activities were recorded on a stele and include new streets and squares, walls, and, of course, a new palace. It has been estimated that during the reign of Sennacherib, the city had as many as 100,000 inhabitants. Others have suggested that there were 120,000 souls in Nineveh, making it the most populated city in the world at that time.

The Royal Lion Hunt at the British Museum from the North Palace Nineveh 645-635 BC. The king is shooting arrows while attendants repulse an attack from a wounded lion. (Mark.murphy/ CC BY SA 3.0)
The Slow Fall of Nineveh

Nineveh’s fortunes did not last for long, however, as the empire suffered a great defeat at the hands of a coalition of Babylonians, Scythians, and Medes in 612 BC. The Assyrians never recovered from this, and came to an end a few years later, whilst their capital was sacked by the enemy. The city, however, was not abandoned, and people continued to reside there all the way until at least the 16th century. Moreover, during the 13th century, the city even prospered somewhat under the Atabegs of Mosul.

John Martin, ‘The Fall of Nineveh.’ (CC BY SA 4.0)
The Modern Period

Modern exploration of Nineveh occurred as early as the 19th century. In 1849, for instance, Sir Austen Henry Layard discovered Sennacherib’s ‘Palace Without Rival’. Other important archaeological discoveries made in Nineveh include the famous ‘Library of Ashurbanipal’, and the palaces of several Assyrian kings.

Today, however, the conflict in the region has prevented further archaeological work from being carried out and has caused much damage to the ruins of this ancient city. In 2016, for instance, it was reported that the Mashki and Adad Gates, two of the city’s gateways, had been destroyed, whilst objects unearthed from the site, which were housed in the Mosul Museum, were either damaged or destroyed.

This article (Nineveh: Exploring The Ruins Of The Crown City Of Ancient Assyria) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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