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The Legendary Isle Of Es Vedra: Atlantis, The Odyssey And A Magnetic Attraction For UFO Sightings

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Collective Spark The Legendary Isle Of Es Vedra
Photo Credit: Getty

Es Vedra is a small island situated off the Spanish island of Ibiza. Unlike Ibiza, which is a popular tourist destination, Es Vedra is uninhabited. This is one of the factors contributing to the island’s rich wildlife. Apart from being notable for its flora and fauna, Es Vedra is also the subject of many legends. Most famously, the island has been associated with the legendary sunken civilisation of Atlantis. In addition, Es Vedra has been connected with Homer’s Odyssey, and sightings of UFOs hovering over the island have been claimed by many.

The island of Es Vedra is located in the Western Mediterranean, about 32 km (2 miles) off the western coast of Ibiza. Consisting primarily of limestone, the highest point of this small island is just over 400 meters (1310 feet) above sea level. Es Vedra is part of the Cala d’Hort Natural Reserve, and boasts an abundance of wildlife. The island is home to a sub-species of Ibiza wall lizard, in addition to several species of endangered birds, and up to 166 rare plant species.

Es Vedra’s Atlantis Legend

Whilst Es Vedra is renowned for its wildlife, it is even more noteworthy for being a site of great mystery. Although many legends have been connected with the island, arguably the best-known of all is that of Atlantis. It has been claimed that Es Vedra is in fact the tip of this lost civilisation, the only part that remained above the water after the island sank into the sea. One possible explanation for this connection is that the island is located close to the sandstone quarry of Sa Pedrera (on Ibiza), which had been given the name Atlantis by hippies living in a huge natural cave there during the 1960s.

View from Sa Pedrera to Es Vedra. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Origin of the Sirens

Es Vedra is also linked to ancient Greek mythology through Homer’s Odyssey. The island is believed to be the home of the sirens, mythical creatures that lured sailors to their death with their song. In the Greek epic, Odysseus wanted to hear the song of the sirens, and so, as his ship approached the home of the sirens, the Greek hero ordered his shipmates to tie him tightly to the mast, and had their ears plugged with beeswax. By this means, Odysseus was able to hear the song of the sirens, and lived to tell the tale.

Ulysses Odysseus and the Sirens by Herbert James Draper. (Public Domain)

It may be added that Es Vedra was regarded as the sacred island of Tanit, a lunar goddess of the Phoenicians. Statues of the goddess have been found all over Ibiza, and sacrifices are said to have been made to the goddess during full moon.

Bust of the goddess Tanit found in the necropolis of Puig des Molins. 4th century B.C. Museum of Puig des Molins in Ibiza, Spain. (Public Domain)
An Island of Unexplained Energy

Apart from its association with the ancient mythology, Es Vedra is also said to be a place of high energy concentration. It has been claimed that the island is the third most magnetic place in the world, after the North Pole and the Bermuda Triangle. This concentration of energy has led some to speculate that the limestone rock of the island was used for the construction of the pyramids in Egypt, which is also claimed to have phenomenal energy-accumulating properties. Some visitors report feeling a surge of energy after visiting the island and some maintain that Es Vedra possesses positive healing energy.

Last but not least, sightings of UFOs over the island have been reported over the years. The famous Manises UFO incident, for example, took place in 1979, when a commercial flight was forced to divert its course due to the appearance of a set of red lights whilst flying over Ibiza. Local fishermen have also reported spotting mysterious lights emerging form under the sea. Some believe that there is a link between these two strange phenomena, suggesting that there is an underwater UFO base beneath the island.      

 This article (The Legendary Isle of Es Vedra: Atlantis, The Odyssey and a Magnetic Attraction for UFO Sightings) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Archeology

Melting Stone With Plants: Was The Mythical ‘Green Chisel’ A Real Ancient Tool?

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Melting Stone With Plants: Was the Mythical 'Green Chisel' A Real Ancient Tool?
Photo Credit: Anjocreatif

Archaeology is not an exact science. It is full of doubts, uncertainties, surprises, and unanswered questions. One of its unsolved mysteries concerns the methods of ancient stone work, which is lost in the mists of time. All existing stones, listed in the Mohs Scale according to their hardness – from the 1st degree (softest, talc), to the 10th (hardest, diamond) – are workable with tools made of something harder than them. This means they are worked and altered with a mineral tool with a higher degree of hardness, or more often with a metal tool.

From the 1st to the 6th degree (mostly calcareous stones), copper or bronze tools are enough. But for stones from the 7th upwards (much harder and mostly siliceous) we need iron or steel tools. In this article, we are interested in the examples of how ancient stoneworkers worked the oldest, hardest stones.

Why the Hardest Stones?

Many of these finds date back to periods or geographical contexts where iron did not exist: i.e. in the Old World before 1200 BC and in the New World before the Conquest. Nevertheless, surprisingly, just the hardest stones were used by ancient peoples in those situations – and with great skill and extremely sophisticated workmanship. Indeed, it seems that they were even preferred, despite the difficulties in working them (during which, moreover, they can chip badly). It was as if shaping them was commonplace for the ancient stonemasons.

We have emeralds, quartzes, obsidian jewels, and amulets with very fine incisions and carvings; slender vases in syenite with very thin sides with a smooth, impeccable finish; the cup of King Narmer, in porphyry; diorite tablets with bas-reliefs on a perfectly smooth background, and long texts in minute hieroglyphic or cuneiform characters, traced with perfect graphics, without smudges, as if they had been stamped rather than carved.

And then there’s the disquieting geometries in diorite of Puma Punku, of maniacal rigor and the incredible puzzles of the Peruvian walls (and Egyptian and Japanese walls too), with millimetre-precision junctions between the immense andesite blocks with 20, 30, or even 40 corners. There are also basaltic boulders three meters high as the grandiose Olmec heads. The 70-ton granite blocks with very clear cuts, that were emptied to create the sarcophagi of the Serapeum of Saqqara, whose even the internal surfaces are as smooth as the outer ones, are another marvel. The shiny cylinders of ‘carrots’ also appear to be dug into granite by drills that seemed to have been as fast as their modern counterparts.

All this work was done by ancient stonemasons on hard siliceous rocks – up to the 8th or 9th degree of the Hardness Scale.

They made vases with smooth finishes and bas-reliefs without smudges, as if they had been stamped rather than carved. (Heagy1 / CC BY-SA 4.0)

None of this, in theory, was feasible by just muscular strength and with the ancient tools in the archaeological record. The stone workers apparently manipulated hard stone with a high degree of skill – but they were without strong saws, bits, special steel drills, and motor-powered tools. It simply seems impossible. But how did they do it? With what?

Inferences and Theories

Obviously, that inexplicable technical perfection has generated a lot of inferences and theories of every kind, many of which arbitrarily transpose means, methods, and knowledge of today into the most distant past. We see a hypothesis suggesting stone was ground, mixed with water, and cast into molds (with a disproportionate expenditure of energy). In another one, the stone is said to be softened by a mix of sour plant juices and shaped, then it would harden.

Other suggestions say the ancient people used lasers, radioactivity and so on, or that they had very advanced machines provided by a mysterious lost civilization. And, of course, there’s the hypothesis that the work was done with the assistance of aliens. But no evidence has ever been found for such devices.

To this technological enigma, excluding fanciful speculations, I intend to offer an explanation in line with ‘Occam’s razor’: with all factors being equal, the solution to a problem is the simplest one.

Using Acid to Work the Hardest Stones

The thesis is that the only practical system available to act on the mentioned minerals, refractory to (or unmanageable by) physical action, was chemistry – specifically exploiting the natural capacity of certain elements to break down other materials due to their incompatibility; incompatible chemical principles put in contact with each other will react by destroying each other. That is, to cause a guided reaction, and to stop it at the right time: the stone would be disintegrated by treating it with a corrosive substance (one incompatible with it) that chemically attacked it, instead of, or before tools were used on it.

In short, an acidic chemical would do most (or part) of the work necessary to produce the desired effect – all while saving time, effort, and material. This, as we shall see, was entirely within the reach of the ancient craftsmen, even if it is not clear how they came to understand that natural phenomenon and its possible advantageous uses.

The fact is that this intuition was, apparently, operatively implemented, and in a very simple and not at all mysterious way. Because – unlike other proposed solutions – the acid does not change the structure of the stone, but literally liquefies it and, if carefully managed, it can eliminate from a block all the superfluous parts (or materials) not included in the project design.

Acid-Washed Stone – a common treatment to show the beauty of a stone without cutting and polishing. (cobalt123 / CC BY-SA 2.0)

The difference compared to manual tools is that it does it without friction – it’s done at the atomic level . That’s all.

We have both direct (material) and indirect (immaterial) clues of the reliability of this hypothesis.

Direct clues are the concrete evidence of the use of that method in artifacts and buildings. The results of the process described above are stunning when they are observed with the naked eye.

But I have no doubt that when they are enlarged under a microscope they would show the uniformity of a ‘controlled dissolution’ made by an acid even in the hardest parts of the stone to reach. This is in contrast to scratches which would have been made by metal tools. As a ‘chemical chisel,’ acid can creep everywhere.

As I said above, there is no archaeological evidence for modern technologies and tools used in the ancient past. But acid has always existed in nature. If we wanted to, we could still use it today.

With it, we could – drop by drop – engrave and pierce precious stones, create the empty cavity of a vase and smooth its sides, model statues, and even make coffins out of huge granite blocks. Layer by layer the acid would consume the inside of the stone and smooth it; or, if we wanted to mark it instead, we could cover it with a film of wax (which doesn’t react to it), scratch away the wax in areas we wanted to mark the stone, and then pour acid on those areas.

This could explain how Moses engraved the Tables of the Law, as the Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 48b,  describes how Shamìr is used to cut stone. To write on stone at that time, it would make sense that Moses used the same method of first marking the letters with ink, then passing Shamìr over them, and then they were engraved.

Did Moses engrave the Tables of the Law with acid? (James Steidl / Adobe)

By penetrating natural fissures with acid, we could remove boulders from their rocky bed and cut them as we wish. And maybe we could use it in the building industry in the form of a corrosive paste or mortar which disappeared after having eaten away the roughness and smoothed away the differences in height between boulders. It would eliminate the space needed for joints and give the structure the appearance of a dry-stone wall.

I believe this was the only way that it was possible for the ancient stonemasons to work very hard silicon-based stones. It would also be used for softer stones like limestone, marble, and alabaster, since the same acid also attacks all other types of stone. Indeed it attacks every material except gold, lead, and wax.

For us, it is important because it is the only natural solvent for silicon – and that aspect allows us to identify it with certainty because there is nothing else capable of so much. It is hydrofluoric acid (chemical symbol HF), one of the most aggressive, extremely reactive, caustic, and poisonous chemicals. The ancient stonemasons used that. That was their secret tool.

Sourcing the Secret Stonework Tool

But how did they get it? What did they extract it from?

Indirect clues will indicate its origin. Ancient legends speak of a magical ‘something’ that could weaken or destroy every type of stone: a ‘something’ that, from time immemorial, was reserved for the mighty ones and unknown to everyone else. But at a certain moment, it was replaced by iron, abandoned, and eventually forgotten. That’s how things happened in the Old World at least; in the New one, history handed it over to oblivion.

There isn’t much to tell though.

There is a transient reference to the ‘farr’ of Persian king Zal which was a symbol of his celestial investiture, which acted as HF. Another, no less scanty reference mentions an obscure ‘plant mixture’ conceived by Egyptian scholars to soften stone. This was perhaps the same ‘unknown cement’ that was thick as a sheet of paper and that the Arab scholar Abd el-Latif (12th century) said connected the stones of the Great Pyramid, in which some ‘plant residues’ have recently been found. This is all from Egypt, although there traces of the technique abound.

Instead, we find a lot of data (certainly from Egyptian sources) in myths and texts, including the Bible, of ancient Israel, however there this discovery – a gift of God, which later disappeared – was only used twice. The Jews called it Shamir.

Was unknown cement used in the construction of the Great Pyramid? (primavera108 / Adobe)
Shamír

The first time Shamir was used was to engrave the Tables of the Law and the names of the 12 tribes on the gems of priestly vestments. The second time was to cut the stones of the Temple of Solomon as God commanded: these were calcareous stones, but the gems were almost all siliceous, which confirms that Moses used hydrofluoric acid – Shamìr.

The description of its appearance is rather vague and ambiguous, but its behavior isn’t. It worked the hardest stones and left perfect, smooth, residue-free surfaces; it had to be kept in a lead basket (an airtight vase would have exploded), and insulated with wool and bran; it had heavy collateral effects (it scalded Moses and poisoned and killed the Temple workers); in the long run it became inactive.

This is the unequivocal picture of the action of that powerful acid, but it does not help us to understand its origin and nature.

Excluding that it was, as hypothesized, mineral (diamond) or animal (worm), maybe it was plant-based?

Some writings related to Shamìr warn not to identify it with Euforbia, a stinging shrub; but why would they do that, if not because it was also a plant? And unfortunately, the information stops there.

Connecting Shamír and the Pito of Peru

But the astonishing answer comes, unexpectedly, from distant Peru, where oral tradition says ever since the ‘ancients’ started to assemble the stones of their huge walls, they used the mysterious Pito, a plant that was described as a low creeping grass with red leaves.

The tradition affirms that Pito or, rather, it’s extract, is capable of melting every stone (the explorer Percy Fawcett talks about an amphora stolen from an Inca tomb, incidentally broken, and of how the liquid leaked out and dissolved the stone below) and iron too. It also declares that – as God had given Israel Shamir to work on the Temple – the local gods had once given men, in order to alleviate their labors, two plants: coca and Pito; not to be confused, however, with the caustic Efedra. Does it remind us of something?

Archaeologists still argue as to how the precise stonework found in places such as Cusco in Peru was achieved. (CC BY 2.0)

Jewish myths mention a wild rooster that used Shamìr to make many small holes in rocks in which to plant trees. In Peru they also associate Pito with a bird which, according to several witnesses, is accustomed to rubbing the leaves of the plant onto rocks with its beak: this softens the stone, in which then it digs itself a nest.

But there’s more. The wild rooster also used Shamìr to erode the glass slab placed upon its nest covering its little ones and the Peruvian bird did exactly the same with the Pito herb, but that slab was made of iron.

These similar narratives cannot be pure coincidence. In different contexts, these birds are apparently using two distinct corrosive chemical agents which act in exactly the same way in the stories. So, on both sides of the ocean, we have two elements with common characteristics and the same range of action: the unique capacity to attack silicon.

And now everything can be reduced to a simple syllogism: if two factors have the same effect on a third, it means that they are equal. Even the legends tell the same story. In short, the active component of Pito and Shamìr was the same.

Moreover, from the descriptions we have established that Shamir was HF and that Pito was a plant; therefore HF was derived from a plant. Ultimately both those substances – Pito and Shamìr – were actually only one with the same formula: hydrofluoric acid, HF, which was extracted from plants. However, they were probably not of the same species because the same plants do not grow in the two geographical areas.

But it is also true that over 40 plants of various species have high contents of the poisonous HF, which they absorb from soil and synthesize, to protect themselves from herbivores, in the form of a compound called fluoroacetic acid.

And to extract hydrofluoric acid from fluoroacetic acid is no more difficult than to make tea: you just have to boil the plant in water, distill the solution, and then concentrate it. HF dissolved in water is manageable, very carefully, at room temperature.

Shamìr/Pito: Continents Apart, Techniques in Common

At this point it is relevant to identify Shamìr and Pito with the richest HF spontaneous plants.

The most probable suspects are Dichapetalum in Africa and Palicourea in South America (coincidentally, the areas of our interest). Both of them are not very attractive and of little economic value, having no known uses (only as a rat poison for Dichapetalum). Today they are not the object of any particular attention.

But, in the mists of time, the discovery of their special virtue, exploited in various ways according to their availability and needs, enabled the first civilizations to create and advance in epigraphy, sculpture, and architecture.

In Peru and Bolivia, where Palicourea abounds, it was used directly and in abundance in the pre-Inca building industry. In Egypt and outside Africa, I believe that only the acid derived from Dichapetalum was used to carry out smaller, expensive works.

Dichapetalum plant. (Vinayaraj / CC BY-SA 3.0 

Who by, where, and when that precious resource was identified is not known and the “how” is perhaps trivial. Maybe the ancient peoples really noticed what the birds were doing or they saw the action of the plants themselves. Regardless, ancient craftsmen learned from experience, and, as they had learned to use fire, water, and wind energy, they also discovered plant or animal juices that melted stones, healed, or killed. They observed that strength, realized its potential, and put it to good use.

Yet the real mystery is not how that knowledge was acquired, nor who transmitted it to whom, but how it travelled between such distant continents. Because, if it is impossible to believe in a coincidence like that shown by myths, it is equally impossible to understand its path unless we rethink the past on very different terms. But this is another story to be investigated elsewhere.

I wish I could demonstrate the validity of this hypothesis by giving it proof and concrete and irrefutable evidence. Modern science can do it. I would like those who have asked the same questions about these mysteries to join me in this research and finally give credit to the skills and knowledge of those who preceded us.

This article (Melting Stone With Plants: Was the Mythical ‘Green Chisel’ A Real Ancient Tool?) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Bizarre

“Witch Marks” Found In Medieval Church Were To Keep Evil Spirits Away

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WEIRD ANTI-WITCH MARKS DISCOVERED AT 700-YEAR-OLD MEDIEVAL CHURCH IN ENGLAND
Photo Credit: http://creativevisionspublications.com/

Jocelyne LeBlancGuest Writer

Ancient graffiti called “witch marks” were discovered in the ruins of a medieval church in the English village of Stoke Mandeville and they were put there in order to keep evil spirits away.

St. Mary’s church was constructed around the year 1070 as a private chapel for the lord of Stoke Mandeville in Buckinghamshire, England. It was renovated in the 1340s which made it bigger so that locals could also attend the church. But then in the 1860s when a new church was built, St. Mary’s was demolished.

“Witch marks” found on the medieval stones of St. Mary’s church in Stoke Mandeville, England (Image: © HS2 Ltd)

It was during the preparations for the construction of a new high-speed railway that revealed the ancient marks in the ruins of the church. The village, as well as the church, are directly in the path of where the tracks will be.

While archaeologists were excavating the church site, they found the remains of walls measuring about five feet in height as well as intact flooring. The most interesting discovery was stone beams that had very peculiar markings on them. The odd circular patterns that are called “witch marks” resembled wheel spokes with a hole that was put in the center with several lines spreading out from it. In fact, they found two different stones that contained those markings – one of them was on the ground level while the other was at an elevated location.

More “witch marks” carved into the stones of St. Mary’s church. (Image credit: HS2 Ltd)

Those types of radial markings were also used as sundials to divide the day up with morning, mid-day, and evening prayers. However, since one of the stones was found at the ground level, its purpose was more than likely to protect the location against evil. In a statement, the project officials explained them as being put there to “ward off evil spirits by entrapping them in an endless line or maze”.

A CG rendering of what St. Mary’s looked like in its prime, 700 years ago. (Image credit: HS2 Ltd)

These “witch marks” have been found at other medieval locations around the United Kingdom and were normally etched into stones near entrances, fireplaces, and windows to stop evil forces from entering. And they’re not just found in churches as the etchings have been discovered in houses, barns, and even caves.

Recommended Articles by Jocelyne LeBlanc
About the Author

Jocelyne LeBlanc works full time as a writer and is also an author with two books currently published. She has written articles for several online websites, and had an article published in a Canadian magazine on the most haunted locations in Atlantic Canada. She has a fascination with the paranormal and ghost stories, especially those that included haunted houses. In her spare time, she loves reading, watching movies, making crafts, and watching hockey.

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Alien

An Oxford Professor, Global Warming, And Alien-Human Hybrids

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Photo Credit: TMU

Brent SwancerGuest Writer

A truly fringe and controversial subject within the field of ufology is that of alien-human hybrids. There are certain factions of the field who feel that, for whatever reasons, that alien entities are experimenting to mix human and alien DNA to create strange new beings. It all sounds like something out of a science fiction novel, but there is much discussion on just this going on, no matter how absurd it might sound. Mostly this is all regulated to the far fringes of the UFO field, but on occasion it comes blasting to the forefront, and this is certainly the case with an Oxford professor who claims that aliens are interbreeding with us to help save us from the end of the world.

It’s rare that you see the very fringe, outlandish idea of aliens hybridizing with humans taken seriously in the slightest bit by an academic, but that is oddly exactly what happened recently with an Oxford University professor by the name of Dr. Young-Hae Chi, a teacher of Korean at Oxford’s Oriental Institute. Since at least 2012 he has been lecturing on the idea that aliens are not only already here amongst us, where they remain invisible to our eyes, but that there are more than one species of the extraterrestrials and they are interbreeding with us and mixing amongst us.

Dr. Young-hae Chi

According to Dr. Chi, there are four main types of aliens here on Earth living among us as we speak, which he describes as “Small; tall and bold; aliens with scales and snake eyes; and finally, insect-like.” It is these insectoid aliens that he believes are the bosses, and outrank all other types. They are also the ones behind the supposed hybrid programs, wherein human and alien DNA are mixed in top secret experiments. He has also said that abducted humans are routinely forced to engage in “sexually oriented actions with aliens or even other human abductees under the influence of mind control.” And why would they do this, you ask? Well, according to him it is due to several reasons, but chief among them is because they are trying to find a way to help us survive through the catastrophic escalation of global warming in recent years. He has written of this in his book Alien Visitations and the End of Humanity:

One possibility is that they find our DNA valuable for the preservation of the stock. Secondly, to create species which can survive in the future climate conditions. Thirdly, some abductees report that these hybrids are of a very high intelligence, so are they producing these hybrids as a problem-solver, a future leader? It may be more or less assumed that the hybrid project is a response to the impending demise of human civilization. Not only scientists and theologians, but also non-human species who appear to be greatly concerned about the survivability of the human species. So, they come not for the sake of us, but for the sake of them, their survival, but their survival is actually our survival as well — the survival of the entire biosphere. Judging from the way the ETs are acting, they have a better view of our future, perhaps it is pointing to a pessimistic future.

He says that these aliens are all around us, but that we cannot see them for reasons he remains fairly vague about. He says that they are basically invisible to us most of the time, only choosing to show themselves to those they abduct, and has claimed:

If they are far, they shouldn’t be concerned about us.  I don’t think they are from far away, they are just next to us, we can’t see them. We can use an analogy of fish which can think and perceive things only in the way they can and humans also perceive only in the way we can, so our perception of the world is limited by our organs.

As far as the hybrids are concerned, Dr. Chi has quite a bit of lore to offer on them, describing how they look more human-like with subsequent generations, saying “The first-generation hybrids still have physical features distinctive to aliens. But from the second generation … they have almost indistinguishable bodily features from those of humans, although they may still carry at least one fourth of alien genes.” Much of his hypothesis is additionally based on thousands of interviews he says he has conducted with alien abductees over the years. He even claims that the increase in UFO sightings and abductee reports in recent years directly correlates with the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, as this has sped up the need for them to create a “new model of Homo sapiens.” Of course he is aware of the scepticism these claims bring, and he has said of this:

Flying Saucers and Giant Aliens described in a possible declassified FBI file. (Click here to read the full article!)

As you might expect, most scientists are dubious. After all, there’s never been any good evidence that the abductions are taking place. No one seems to bring along a cell phone to make photos, or pocket an artifact from the saucers.

Dr. Chi has nevertheless held tight to his bonkers theory that aliens are implementing a breeding program to save us from the rigors of global climate change, and you can watch one of his far-out lectures on the matter here. Is there anything to this, or is this just the delusional rantings and sci-fi imaginings of an out-of-touch individual? Whatever you may think, Dr. Chi continues to stand by his hypothesis and writes and speaks on it extensively. Is any of this worth looking into at all? In the end it remains a curious piece of strangeness to add to the pile of the already truly bizarre area of alien-human hybrids, and it is a wild ride whether real or not.

Recommended Articles by Brent Swancer
About the Author

Is an author and crypto expert living in Japan. Biology, nature, and cryptozoology still remain Brent Swancer’s first intellectual loves. He’s written articles for MU and Daily Grail and has been a guest on Coast to Coast AM and Binnal of America.

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Archeology

Adam’s Calendar: Oldest Megalithic Site In The World?

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https://www.ancient-origins.net/
Photo Credit: www.getaway.co.za

Adam’s Calendar is controversially suggested to be the oldest man-made structure in the world. Sometimes referred to as “African Stonehenge“, it predates both Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid of Giza by tens of thousands of years. Located in Mpumalanga, South Africa it is a standing stone circle about 30 meters in diameter and has been estimated by some accounts to be more than 75,000 years old. Various astronomical alignments have been identified at the site and it is possibly the only example of a completely functional, mostly intact megalithic stone calendar in the world.

Adam’s calendar is location in Mpumalanga, a picturesque region in South Africa (Wikimedia Commons)

Scattered throughout the mountains of South Africa are thousands of stone circle ruins. The first estimates of the number of these ruins was made in 1891 by English explorer Theodore Bent. He estimated there were about 4,000 in this area of the world. By 1974 the estimate had risen to 20,000. Today, researcher and authority on the subject, Michael Tellinger, has estimated the number of ancient stone ruins to be 100,000 or possibly much higher. Some of these “stone circles” have no doors or entrances while most are connected by an expansive network of channels that are often misinterpreted as “roads” by some historians. This connected grid of circular ruins are immersed in a seemingly never-ending expanse of ancient agricultural terraces surrounding the structures. Adam’s Calendar is considered to be the most famous among these ruins.

Screenshot from Google Earth showing just a tiny area in South Africa, which is rich with ancient earthworks and stone structures (Google Earth)

Known by African elders, as the “The Birthplace of The Sun” or “Inzalo y’Langa”, the site was first brought to public attention in 2003 by South African pilot Johan Heine. He had been flying over the mountains of Mpumalanga, South Africa for over 20 years and took an interest in the thousands of strange circular stone objects scattered throughout the region and began photographing them. In consulting experts on their origins, he was informed that they were the remains of “cattle kraal” (livestock enclosure) left behind by the Bantu people when they migrated from the north around the 14th century. Today this theory seems far from definitive as the structures are unlike any other Bantu cattle-kraal designs, which are usually made of thorny shrubs, with a single entrance/exit for the cattle. There are also several thousand of them spread over tens of thousands of miles.

Bantu cattle kraal (Image source)

An air crash involving one of his crew brought Johan to discover the mysterious monolithic circle by accident. On route to find one of his pilots who crashed his plane on the edge of the cliff, Johan noticed an arrangement of large stones sticking out of the ground next to the crash site. While rescuing the injured pilot down the side of the cliff, Johan walked over to the monoliths and realized they were aligned to the cardinal points – north, south, east and west – as well as the equinoxes and solstices. There were at least 3 monoliths aligned towards the sunrise, but on the west side of the aligned monoliths there was a strange hole in the ground. After weeks and months of measuring and making observations, Johan suspected it was a stone calendar.

The site is aptly named Adam’s Calendar because the stones are placed to track the movement of the sun, which casts shadows on the rock. It still works perfectly as a calendar today by following the shadow of the setting sun, which is cast by the taller central monolith onto the flat stone beside it. This remarkable calendar was originally a large circular stone structure resembling Stonehenge and in the center of the ‘circle’ are two upright stones which are said to have been carved. Its original shape is still clearly visible from satellite images. The stones are all dolomite, weighing up to 5 tons each, and are said to have been transported from a distant site. It should be noted that the area surrounding Adam’s Calendar is extremely rich in gold. Several mining shafts have been reported in the area with one of the richest working mines in the world today being the Sheba Gold Mine, located in Mpumalanga. Not only did the rich gold reefs attract attention in the 1880’s, but the early evidence of historic civilizations mining for minerals was described in writings by the early Europeans.

Rodney Hale’s plan of Adam’s Calendar with alignments as they were in 11500 BC (andrewcollins.com)

The first calculations of the age of the calendar were made based on the rise of Orion, a constellation known for its three bright stars forming the “belt” of the mythical hunter. The Earth wobbles on its axis, so the stars and constellations change their angle of presentation in the night sky on a cyclical basis. This rotation, called the precession completes a cycle about every 26,000 years. By determining when the three stars of Orion’s belt were positioned flat (horizontal) against the horizon, it is possible to estimate the time when the three stones in the calendar were in alignment with these stars. According to Tellinger, a calculation done by astronomer Bill Hollenbach based on the rise of Orion suggested an age of the site of at least 75,000 years. A further calculation done in June 2009, suggested an age of at least 160,000 years, based on the rise of Orion ‘flat on the horizon’ but also on the ‘erosion of dolerite stones’ found at the site. Some pieces of the marker stones had been broken off and sat on the ground, exposed to natural erosion. When the pieces were put back together about 3 cm of stone had already been worn away. This calculation helped assess the age of the site by calculating the erosion rate of the dolerite.

Michael Tellinger testing the sound acoustics of the site (andrewcollins.com)

The latest and most interesting discovery of the stone circles and Adam’s Calendar is the sound frequencies of the rock formations from the earth below them. With modern technology, Tellinger and scientists have been able to detect and measure sound frequencies with acoustic properties made from the earth inside the circles which conduct electricity. These sound frequencies of the earth under the stones are shaped as flowers of sacred geometry as they surface to the ground.

There is still much about Adam’s calendar that is yet to be understood, including who built them, what their civilization was like, and how they constructed it with such precise measurements. Perhaps in time, more research will piece together this prehistoric mystery. 

This article (Adam’s Calendar: Oldest Megalithic Site in the World?) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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