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The Largest Ozone Hole Ever Recorded Over North Pole Has Finally ‘Healed Itself’ And Closed

“COVID-19 and the associated lockdowns probably had nothing to do with this.”

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Photo Credit: www.space.com

(TMU) — The massive ozone hole that formed over the North Pole has finally closed, scientists have announced.

Researchers from the European Union’s Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) who were tracking the record-breaking ozone hole over the Arctic tweeted last Thursday:

“The unprecedented 2020 Northern Hemisphere ozone hole has come to an end.”

The hole, which was the single largest such ozone hole ever detected in the arctic, first opened in late March as unusual wind conditions trapped frigid air over the North Pole for several consecutive weeks.

However, scientists took pains to point out that the closing of the hole has nothing to do with drop in emissions recorded across the world as a result of lockdown measures meant to curb the coronavirus.

On Twitter, the group wrote:

“COVID-19 and the associated lockdowns probably had nothing to do with this.

“It’s been driven by an unusually strong and long-lived polar vortex, and isn’t related to air quality changes.”

Live Science reports that a polar vortex is comprised of powerful winds that create a circular cage of cold air that leads to the formation of high-altitude clouds in the region. The clouds mixed with harmful human-made chemicals such as chlorine and bromine, which migrated into the stratosphere and accumulated inside the vortex.

The chemicals then ate away at surrounding gases; thinning the ozone layer and forming a huge hole approximately three times the size of Greenland in the atmosphere, according to a European Space Agency (ESA) statement.

The ozone layer is the layer in the Earth’s stratosphere that is responsible for absorbing the ultraviolet (UV) rays of the Sun, effectively filtering out radiation that causes skin cancer among humans, destroys crops, and disrupts marine ecosystems among other devastating effects on the planet.

The ozone layer has faced decades of degradation thanks to the use of harmful chemical compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons, halons, hydrochloro-fluorocarbons, and other organic and synthetic (human-made) ozone-depleting compounds that are commonly used in refrigerators, aerosols, and a range of industrial processes.

The startling decline of the ozone layer became such a dire matter of concern that in 1987, governments agreed to the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty meant to phase out the production and use of ozone-depleting chemicals.

However, ozone holes have continued to form annually in the Antarctic due to a failure to sufficiently check the amount of human-made chemicals that continue to make their way into the stratosphere. Scientists believe that this will remain a seasonal phenomenon in the future.

In October, the ozone hole shrank to its smallest size ever recorded, mainly due to the unusually hot climate conditions above Antarctica caused by global warming.

In the Arctic, polar vortexes tend to be far weaker, which means that the conditions which eat away at ozone gases aren’t typically found—hence the “unprecedented” nature of this ozone hole.

According to a 2018 study by the World Meteorological Organization, the southern ozone hole has been shrinking at a rate of 1% to 3% per decade since 2000, meaning that it won’t heal entirely until about 2050. Credit is also due to the Montreal Protocol for the apparent healing of the ozone layer.

By Elias Marat | Creative Commons | TheMindUnleashed.com

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Innovation

After Nikola Tesla Proved Wireless Electricity Was Possible, A Startup Finally Made It A Reality

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After Nikola Tesla Proved Wireless Electricity Was Possible, A Startup Finally Made It A Reality
Photo Credit: Getty

Matt Agorist, The Free Thought Project

Nikola Tesla is not the subject of American social studies or science classes. American children do not learn about him in school and this is in spite of the fact that he is considered one of the most influential scientists ever. His visions were motivated by altruism and providing a benefit to all of humanity, not just those who can afford it. One of the ways Tesla envisioned helping the world was providing it with extremely low-cost, or even free, electricity. But with the cost of wires running across continents, this was a futile task. So, Tesla thought outside of the box — getting the wires out of the picture entirely.

Now, his vision is finally coming to fruition.

In 1901 Tesla began his work of a large high-voltage wireless energy transmission station called the Wardenclyffe Tower which was a wireless prototype transmitter for a “World Wireless System” that was to broadcast both information and power worldwide. Over a century ago, Tesla even demonstrated that his technology worked to investors, but they pulled out and the facility was never completed. Establishment science then told the world that his inventions would never work.

But they were wrong.

Fast-forward to 2020 and a startup company named Emrod says it has figured it out.

As Popular Mechanics reports, in a statement, Emrod founder Greg Kushnir says he was motivated by New Zealand’s particular set of skills, à la Liam Neeson in Taken.

“We have an abundance of clean hydro, solar, and wind energy available around the world but there are costly challenges that come with delivering that energy using traditional methods, for example, offshore wind farms or the Cook Strait here in New Zealand requiring underwater cables which are expensive to install and maintain.”

By removing the requirement for electricity to travel through wire, Emrod can fulfill Tesla’s desire to bring energy to those who cannot afford the infrastructure or those who live in difficult terrain.

There are also environmental benefits to the technology as many places uses diesel generators or other fossil fuels to relay electricity from place to place. Emrod’s technology will remove the need for these stations.

“Energy is transmitted through electromagnetic waves over long distances using Emrod’s proprietary beam shaping, metamaterials and rectenna technology,” Emrod explains.

It is safer too.

Emrod uses beams in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band with frequencies commonly used in WiFi, Bluetooth, and RfID.

Point-to-Point transmission means that power is beamed directly between two points. There is no radiation around the beam, as there is with high voltage wire transmission.

Low power laser safety curtain ensures that the transmission beam immediately shuts down before any transient object (such as a bird or helicopter) can reach the main beam ensuring it never touches anything except clean air.

As PM notes, technology like this would seem implausible because of issues like the loss of signal fidelity over the transmission through the air then through a series of mediating technologies. But Emrod’s relay technology, which it says “refocuses the beam,” doesn’t use any power, and loses almost none.

Kushnir tells New Atlas:

“The efficiency of all the components we’ve developed are pretty good, close to 100%. Most of the loss is on the transmitting side. We’re using solid state for the transmitting side, and that’s essentially the same electronic elements you can find in any radar system, or even your microwave at home. Those are at the moment limited to around 70% efficiency. But there’s a lot of development going into it, mainly driven by communications, 5G and so on.”

Kushnir says that the original setup will be fairly low, sending a few kilowatts over a few kilometres. However, he says that scaling up in order to send “unfathomable” amounts of energy over longer distances can be done, hypothetically, by making larger rectennas.

While every generation is astonished by the advancement of technology, few generations have predicted technological advancements so far before they happened, and the accuracy with which Tesla did it is mind boggling.

Imagine the world today if Tesla’s visions were allowed to come to fruition had his work not been seized by the government. Sadly, however, that was not the case.

Only two days after his death, the FBI ordered the U.S. Office of Alien Property to seize all of Tesla’s belongings. Tesla’s entire estate from the Hotel New Yorker, and other New York City hotels, was transported to the Manhattan Storage and Warehouse Company under OAP seal.

In an instant, this genius man’s entire life’s work became the property of the government to further their militaristic escapades.

However, not all was lost; as TFTP reported, several new geniuses would rise up and follow in Tesla’s footsteps. People like Jim Murray would diligently devote their lives to understanding this great man, and in turn, create paradigm shifting technologies like the SERPS (Switched Energy Resonance Power Supply) device.

This highly specialized electronic circuit has the ability to “Magnify” the effective power applied to it by nearly 50 times. When Jim coupled his device with his friend Paul Babcock’s patented ultrafast five nanosecond switching technology, they achieved a 4790% increase in electrical power compared to the input. This type of performance, if commercialized, would cause the largest electric utility companies to shake in their boots.

It’s been nearly 8 decades since his death, and through companies like Emron, Tesla is still helping to make the world a better place — in spite of government schools making no mention of his contributions to humanity.

The views in this article may not reflect editorial policy of Collective Spark.

About the Author

Matt Agorist is an honorably discharged veteran of the USMC and former intelligence operator directly tasked by the NSA. This prior experience gives him unique insight into the world of government corruption and the American police state. Agorist has been an independent journalist for over a decade and has been featured on mainstream networks around the world. Agorist is also the Editor at Large at the Free Thought Project. Follow @MattAgorist on TwitterSteemit, and now on Minds.

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NASA Spacecraft Spots “Dancing Sprites” And Colorful Electrical Bursts In Jupiter’s Sky For First Time

Nobody had ever seen these bright, transient luminous events dancing across alien skies – until now.

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Photo Credit: NASA

(TMU) New high-definition imagery captured of Jupiter by NASA’s Juno spacecraft is revealing colourful, lighting-like bursts of energy in the upper atmosphere of our solar system’s largest planet.

The phenomena – haunting, jellyfish-like spurts of red lightning dubbed “sprites” and glowing disks known as “elves” – are common occurrences in the upper reaches of the Earth’s atmospheres during thunderstorms, and were first discovered in 1989. Since then, they have been sighted over every continent besides Antarctica.

Scientists have theorized that any planet that has lightning would also produce these super-fast electrical bursts that occur up to 60 miles up in the Earth’s sky, reaching toward space. Researchers predicted that this would certainly be the case in Jupiter’s massive, roiling atmosphere.

However, nobody had ever seen these bright, transient luminous events dancing across alien skies – until now.

Since 2016, Juno has orbited Jupiter and collected troves of images of its aurorae through the spacecraft’s ultraviolet light, or ultraviolet spectrograph instrument (UVS). When scientists began processing some of these images, they noticed an unexpected detail: bright, narrow streaks of ultraviolet emissions that appeared in a flash before quickly vanishing.

“In the process of putting together those images, we noticed that very occasionally we saw these surprising, short-lived, bright flashes,” said Juno scientist Rohini Giles during a Tuesday press conference at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society’s Division for Planetary Sciences, according to Business Insider.

“We then went and searched through all of the data that we’ve taken over four years of the mission and we found a total of 11 flashes all with very similar properties,” she added. The outbursts only lasted mere milliseconds.

On Tuesday, her team published a new study on these phenomena in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.

Here on Earth, sprites often resemble alien-like jellyfish-style creatures dangling from the ionosphere, or the layer that lies just above the dense lower atmosphere. In other cases, they look like vertical pillars of light with thin, curling tendrils – and these are called carrot curls due to their resemblance to the root vegetable.

Sprites were given their quasi-magical name by late University of Alaska physics professor Davis Sentman, who devised the name for this weather phenomenon due to it being “well suited to describe their appearance” and fleeting, fairy-like nature – much like the mischievous characters from English folklore.

Sprites occur when lightning strikes the ground, releasing positive electrical energy that requires balancing by an equal and oppositely charged electrical discharge into the sky. The sprites also occur much higher into the sky than regular lightning, which strikes in between electrically charged air, clouds, and our planet’s surface.

In some cases, lightning strikes also send electromagnetic pulses upward, producing glowing disks known as elves.

NASA has released 30 stunning high definition photographs of Jupiter. (Click here to read the full article!)

“On Earth, sprites and elves appear reddish in color due to their interaction with nitrogen in the upper atmosphere,” Giles noted. “But on Jupiter, the upper atmosphere mostly consists of hydrogen, so they would likely appear either blue or pink.”

The Juno team is still unable to confirm whether the events were actually caused by lightning strikes, mainly because the probe’s device that detects lightning is on the opposite side of the spacecraft from its UVS. The images from the two devices are also taken 10 seconds apart, which is far too long a period of time for both instruments to analyze the same flash of light.

However, the researchers are confident that the 11 outbursts detected were transient luminous events. In each case, they disappeared in flash, emitted massive amounts of hydrogen, and took place 186 miles above Jupiter’s water clouds – far too high to be simple lightning.

“We’re continuing to look for more telltale signs of elves and sprites every time Juno does a science pass,” Giles said.

“Now that we know what we are looking for, it will be easier to find them at Jupiter and on other planets,” she added. “And comparing sprites and elves from Jupiter with those here on Earth will help us better understand electrical activity in planetary atmospheres.”

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NASA Announces “Exciting New Discovery”: Water Confirmed To Exist On The Moon

NASA has finally spilled the details about its stunning new find.

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NASA Announces “Exciting New Discovery”: Water Confirmed To Exist On The Moon
Photo Credit: Getty

After a week of dropping tantalizing hints about an “exciting new discovery” it had made, NASA has finally spilled the details about its stunning new find: there is water on the sunlit surface of the moon – and much, much more than previously expected.

While water ice has previously been found on the moon in the past – mainly in the frigid, shadowed regions of the moon’s huge craters and north and south poles – this is the first time that water has been found on those surfaces exposed to sunlight.

It was previously believed that if water on the lunar surface had been exposed to the warming radiation of the sun, it would evaporate.

However, it turns out that water molecules are trapped within mineral grains across the moon, with more water likely hidden in the ice patches residing under the permanent shadows along the lunar surface, which are believed to have not seen any sunlight for billions of years.

A team of researchers is reporting that the moon could have some 40,000 square kilometres of permanent shadows where hidden pockets of water in the form of ice could be harboured.

The discovery that water is capable of withstanding lunar conditions under sunlight could have major implications for any future efforts to settle the moon as a human settlement, offering a precious resource that future astronauts could potentially use for drinking, or as an ingredient in the production of rocket fuel.

“We had indications that H2O – the familiar water we know – might be present on the sunlit side of the moon,” said Paul Hertz, the director of the astrophysics division of the science mission directorate at NASA’s Washington headquarters. “Now we know it is there. This discovery challenges our understanding of the lunar surface and raises intriguing questions about resources relevant for deep space exploration.”

The discovery, which is detailed in a pair of papers published by the journal Nature, relied on NASA’s airborne Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, which is a Boeing 747SP aircraft modified to carry a telescope..

One team led by Casey Honniball of the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland found molecular water on the lunar surface, trapped within natural glasses or between grains of debris. While past observations had difficulty discerning between water and hydroxyl – its molecular cousin –the new detection method offered clear findings.

However, the identified hydrogen and oxygen molecules are quite far apart, meaning that they are not lying in puddles or solid blocks of ice.

“A lot of people think that the detection I’ve made is water ice, which is not true. It’s just the water molecules — because they’re so spread out they don’t interact with each other to form water ice or even liquid water,” Honniball said.

The scientists believe that the water could have travelled by way of solar winds or from micrometeorites that contained some water.

Another paper found that the Moon’s “billions” of tiny craters have offered the ideal texture for creating shadowy regions across the moon, offering perfect conditions to hold frozen ice. Some of the shadows are no bigger than a small coin, according to researchers led by planetary scientist Paul Hayne of the University of Colorado, Boulder.

“Our research shows that a multitude of previously unknown regions of the moon could harbour water ice,” Hayne said. “Our results suggest that water could be much more widespread in the moon’s Polar Regions than previously thought, making it easier to access, extract and analyse.”

It still remains to be determined whether the water, which appears to be extant across our natural satellite, will be easily accessible to future explorers or settlers.

“We don’t know yet if we can use it as a resource, but learning about water on the moon is key for our Artemis exploration plans,” NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine noted in a tweet.

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Study: 1,000 Potential Alien Star Systems Could Be Watching Us From Afar

A study of Earth’s “solar neighborhood” has found that over 1,000 different systems have the perfect angle to view Earth.

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Photo Credit: TMU

(TMU) Motivated by the “Pale Blue Dot” NASA photo researchers are asking the question, could other planets be looking at us just like we’re looking at them? A study of Earth’s “solar neighborhood” has found that over 1,000 different systems have the perfect angle to view Earth.

The infamous “Pale Blue Dot” photograph was suggested by astronomer Carl Sagan who implored that the Voyager 1 space probe take a picture of Earth from nearly four billion miles away. The new study published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, seeks to find out how many different exo-planet systems with alien life could be watching us. Ironically, the research comes from the Cornell’s Carl Sagan Institute.

The study’s co-author Lisa Kaltenegger stated their list focuses on main-sequence stars similar to our own sun. These solar systems may contain exoplanets, Earth-like worlds sitting in the habitable zone for life. All of the prospective systems are within 300 million light-years of Earth, close enough to see our world’s chemical traces according to the researchers.

“Let’s reverse the viewpoint to that of other stars and ask from which vantage point other observers could find Earth as a transiting planet,” Kaltenegger, the director of Cornell’s Carl Sagan Institute said in a press release.

“If observers were out there searching, they would be able to see signs of a biosphere in the atmosphere of our Pale Blue Dot… and we can even see some of the brightest of these stars in our night sky without binoculars or telescopes.”

What makes this listing of 1,004 star systems novel and significant is they all sit in Earth’s elliptic orbit or the plane of the planets orbit around our Sun. Exoplanets traveling along this same path would be able to see the Earth according to the researchers.

Lawsuit reveals NSA received 29 “extraterrestrial messages” from space, a long time ago. (Click here to read the full article!)

To foreign observers, Earth would be a transiting planet that passes in front of its sun as the observer looks at distant stars. Theoretically, these exoplanets would be able to see Earth crossing the Sun, which sounds like a marvellous sight.

“Only a very small fraction of planets will just happen to be randomly aligned with our line of sight so we can see them transit,” co-author Joshua Pepper of Lehigh University says. “But all of the thousand stars we identified in our paper in the solar neighbourhood could see our Earth transit the sun, calling their attention.”

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