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Ancient Mysteries

The 500 Year Old Map That Shatters The Official History Of The Human Race

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The 500 Year Old Map That Shatters The Official History Of The Human Race
Photo Credit: Waking Times

Buck Rogers, Guest Writer

If conventional wisdom on the history of the human race is correct, then human civilization is not old enough, nor was it advanced enough, to account for many of the mysterious monolithic and archaeological sites around the world. Places like Gobekli Tepe in Turkey, the Bosnian Pyramids, and Adam’s Calendar in South Africa, beg the same question: if human civilization is supposedly not old enough to have created all of these sites, then who, or what, had the capacity to create so many elaborate structures around the globe?

It is clear that our understanding of our own history is incomplete, and there is plenty of credible evidence pointing to the existence of intelligent and civilized cultures on Earth long before the first human cultures emerged from the Middle East around 4000BC. The Admiral Piri Reis world map of 1513 is part of the emerging more complete story of our history, one that challenges mainstream thinking in big ways.

Mapmaking is a complex and civilized task, thought to have emerged around 1000BC with the Babylonian clay tablets. Antarctica was officially first sighted by a Russian expedition in 1820 and is entirely covered in ice caps thought to have formed around 34-45 million years ago. Antarctica, therefore, should not be seen on any map prior to 1820, and all sighted maps of Antarctica should contain the polar ice caps, which are supposedly millions of years old.

A world map made by Ottoman cartographer and military admiral, Piri Reis, casts some doubt on what we think we know about ancient civilization.

The Piri Reis map, which focuses on Western Africa, the East Coast of South America, and the North Coast of Antarctica, features the details of a coastline that many historians and geologists believe represents Queen Maud Land, that is, Antarctica. Remarkably, as represented in this map, the frigid continent was not covered in ice caps, but, rather, with dense vegetation. How could a map drawn in 1513 feature a continent that wasn’t discovered until 1820? And if the continent had in fact been discovered by one of the civilizations known to have emerged after 4000BC, why were the ice caps not on the map?

The paradoxes presented by the map were of little significance to the world until Charles Hapgood, a history professor from New Hampshire, USA, claimed that the information in the Piri Reis map supported a different view of geology and ancient history. Hapgood believed that the map verified his global geological theory, which explains how portions of Antarctica could have remained ice-free until 4000BC.

Hapgood’s presentation is so convincing that even famed theoretical physicist and philosopher Albert Einstein wrote the following supportive forward to a book that Hapgood wrote in 1953:

“His idea is original, of great simplicity, and – if it continues to prove itself – of great importance to everything that is related to the history of the Earth’s surface.” – Albert Einstein

This map was found in the Library of Congress, Washington DC in 1960 by Charles Hapgood

Unquestionably not a hoax, the map is certifiably authentic, but the information on the map is of mysterious origin. Piri Reis himself notes that the map was drawn from information sourced from other, older maps, charts and logs, many of which, Hapgood suggests, may have been copied and transcribed repeatedly since before the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in Egypt, which wiped out the literature of antiquity and vast cultural knowledge.

This hypothesis opens the door to the possibility that some forgotten ancient civilization had the capacity to voyage to the Antarctic, charting the earth, with the technology to make maps, sometime before the ice caps formed. A significant departure from our present understanding of our history.

The absence of the ice caps in the Piri Reis map is peculiar, and in 1960 Hapgood brought his theories on this to the attention of the United States Air Force. Hapgood asked, among other things, if the shape of the continent, as it appeared on the Piri Reis map, was at all similar to the shape of the continent under the ice, as revealed by recent Air Force testing of seismic data on the continent. Their answer was astonishing:

“…the geographical detail shown in the lower part of the map agrees very remarkably with the results of the seismic profile made across the top of the ice-cap by the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition of 1949.

This indicates the coastline had been mapped before it was covered by the ice-cap.

The ice-cap in this region is now about a mile thick.

We have no idea how the data on this map can be reconciled with the supposed state of geographical knowledge in 1513.

Harold Z. Ohlmeyer
Lt. Colonel, USAF
Commander”

[Fingerprints of the Gods]

If Hapgood’s theory has merit, as even Einstein believed, then there was a period of time from around 13000BC to 6000BC when Antarctica was located more closely to the equator and was more tropical in climate, much like parts of South America. This was caused by a sudden shift of the earth’s entire lithosphere, he theorized, simultaneously moving all of the continents into their present position, a much different view than the widely accepted explanation offered the plate tectonics theory.

If Antarctica had indeed been further North than it presently is, and was not covered in ice only as recently as 6000BC, then who was around back then that could have mapped it, long before any known civilizations? And who could have done so long before the advent of the marine chronometer in the 18th century, which finally solved the problem of accurately tracking longitude on the high seas?

Had the entire Earth already been mapped by 4000BC, by a civilization that has been forgotten, as analysis of the Piri Reis map and the theories of Charles Hapgood suggest?

About the Author

Buck Rogers is the earth bound incarnation of that familiar part of our timeless cosmic selves, the rebel within. He is a surfer of ideals and meditates often on the promise of happiness in a world battered by the angry seas of human thoughtlessness.

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Ancient Mysteries

Hy-Brasil: The Legendary Phantom Island Of Ireland

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Hy-Brasil: The Legendary Phantom Island of Ireland
Photo Credit: BBC

Hy-Brasil is a mysterious island appearing on maps from 1325 to the 1800s. In Irish myth, it was said to be clouded in mist except for one day every seven years, when it became visible but still could not be reached. Stories about the island have circulated throughout Europe for centuries, with tales that it was the promised land of saints or a paradise where an advanced civilization lived.

On most maps, the island was located roughly 321 km (200 miles) off the west coast of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean. One of the most distinctive geographical features of Hy-Brasil on those maps is that it often appears as a circle with a channel (or river) running east to west across it.

Hy-Brasil on a map from 1325. (Ocultoreveladoaverdade)
The Many Names of the Mysterious Island

Hy-Brasil (also called Hy-Breasal, Hy-Brazil, Hy-Breasil, and Brazir) is derived from the name Breasal meaning the High King of the world in Celtic history. It was noted on maps as early as 1325 by the Genoese cartographer Angelino Dulcert, where it was identified as “Bracile.” It later appeared in the Catalan Atlas in 1375, which placed it as two separate islands with the same name, “Illa de brasil”.

In 1436, it showed up as “Sola De Brasil” in the Venetian map by cartographer Andrea Bianco. Attached to one of the larger islands of a group in the Atlantic, this was identified for a time with Mater Island. It would show up again in 1595 on the Ortelius Map of Europe and Europa Mercator Map and occasionally show up in slightly different locations on different maps over time.

Hy-Brasil (here simply Brasil), close-up of the Ortelius Map of Europe. (Public Domain)
Expeditions in Search of Hy-Brasil

In 1480, John Jay Jr. departed from Bristol, England on a journey to find the fabled island only to come back empty handed after spending two months at sea. In 1481, two more ships, the Trinity and the George, departed from Bristol on an expedition to find Hy-Brasil with no success either.

Interestingly, in 1497, Spanish diplomat Pedro de Ayala reported to the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, that John Cabot (the first European to visit North America since the Vikings) had “discovered in the past by the men from Bristol who found Brasil.” This implied someone from one of the Bristol expeditions had actually managed to find it.

The Nautical chart of Western Europe (1473) shows Hy-Brasil in a circular shape. (British Library)

Nearly two centuries later Scottish sea captain, John Nisbet, claimed to have spotted Hy-Brasil on his voyage from France to Ireland in 1674. He is said to have sent a party of four ashore, where the sailors spent the entire day on the island.

Large Black Rabbits and a Mysterious Magician

There, they claim to have met a wise old man who provided them with gold and silver. Strangely, the captain said the island was inhabited by large black rabbits and a mysterious magician who lived in a large stone castle by himself. A follow up expedition was led by Captain Alexander Johnson who also claimed to have found Hy-Brasil, confirming Nisbet’s findings.

In the following years, Hy-Brasil would retreat into anonymity. As attempts to find it failed again, map-makers started leaving it off most nautical charts . When it was last observed on a map in 1865, it was simply noted as “Brazil rock.”

The last documented sighting of Hy-Brasil was made in 1872 by Robert O’Flaherty and T.J. Westropp. Westropp claimed to have visited the island on three previous occasions and was so captivated by it that he brought his family with him to see it in person. There, they all witnessed it appear out of nowhere only to see it vanish again before their very eyes.

Myths and Legends About Hy-Brasil

There are many myths and legends surrounding Hy-Brasil. In some of them, the island is the home of the gods of Irish lore. In others, it is inhabited by priests or monks rumoured to hold ancient knowledge which allowed them to create an advanced civilization. Some think that St. Brendan’s famous voyage to find the “Promised Land” may have been Hy-Brasil.

An artistic representation of what Hy-Brasil may have looked like. (Wikia)

In one famous UFO encounter, known as the Rendlesham Forest incident, a strange craft is reported to have landed outside a U.S. military base in the U.K. Sergeant Jim Penniston claims to have touched this craft and telepathically receive 16 pages of binary code into his mind. He wrote down the code the next day and had it translated decades later. The code was said to list very specific coordinates of Hy-Brasil and listed the location where ancient cartographers had it mapped. The message also listed the coordinates of several other ancient sites around the world such as the Pyramids at Giza and Nazca Lines. At the very bottom of the message, coordinates of Hy-Brasil were listed again along with an origin year of 8100.

Binary Code showing the coordinates of Hy-Brasil and other locations. (Tribelightstation)
Hy-Brasil as Ireland’s Atlantis

While Atlantis may be the most famous lost civilization, Hy-Brasil is better documented and has more eyewitness accounts behind it. 

The legend could be a story that was passed down through generations from the end of the last Ice Age when sea levels were lower. For example, the so-called Porcupine Bank, discovered in 1862, appears to have been an island at some point in time. Located about 193 km (120 miles) west of Ireland, it is a shoal exposed at extreme low tide and is where an 1830 chart had ‘Brazil Rock’ located. The bank’s highest point is around 200 meters (656 feet) below sea level and was sunk either due to a catastrophe or rising sea levels.

Porcupine Bank and Seabight, bathemetry of the Northeast Atlantic. (Public Domain)

Today, no such island called Hy-Brasil exists on any maps or nautical charts and no historical documents were ever recorded to indicate what happened to it. Mainstream historians simply consider it a case of mistaken identity. Nevertheless, it is a peculiar riddle in history that is likely to be debated and discussed into the future.

A Map of Europe from 1570 showing Hy-Brasil at another location (look beside the foot of the animal ‘Europa’ is riding). (Public Domain)

BBC Radio Four made a program based on legends and the story of Hy-Brasil, it can be found here: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01mdg51

This article (Hy-Brasil: The Legendary Phantom Island of Ireland) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Ancient Mysteries

Are Fossils Linked To The Legendary Kraken Enough To Prove Its Terrifying Existence?

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Are Fossils Linked To The Legendary Kraken Enough To Prove Its Terrifying Existence?
Photo Credit: CC0

Scandinavian mythology claims the Kraken swallowed up whales and devoured ships. It has been described as a huge version of an octopus or squid. Legends have even claimed the terrifying sea creature measured one-mile long. Although the Kraken was first noted in the 13th century Icelandic saga, Örvar-Oddr, a researcher believes he has fossil evidence that is linked to this creature.

Initially found in 2011, fossils of a marine lizard showed a strange pattern which a researcher believes was caused by a Kraken-like octopus. The claim has been criticized, but Professor McMenamin, a paleontologist at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, backed up this conclusion with other findings.

Pen and wash drawing by malacologist Pierre Dénys de Montfort, 1801, from the descriptions of French sailors reportedly attacked by such a creature off the coast of Angola. (Public Domain) Was it a Kraken?

An odd arrangement of sea reptile vertebrae was found in Berlin-Ichthyosaur State Park in Nevada. The animal was called an ichthyosaur and it lived around 200 to 250 million years ago. The manner in which the bones were found suggests that it was attacked by a much larger predator – perhaps supporting the hypothesis that a giant octopus or squid once dominated the seas. It has been estimated the creature which vanquished the ichthyosaur had to have been about 30 meters (98.43 ft.) long; this far surpasses the largest giant octopus known today – a creature rarely larger than a human being.

Artist’s depiction of a Kraken attacking an ichthyosaur. (Hodari Nundu)

The discovery of a fossil identified as part of the beak of a giant octopus or squid-like creature, along with more bones arranged in unusual patterns which have sucker markings, adds to Professor McMenamin’s evidence. A ‘debris pile’ of scattered bones were also found alongside the remains of the ichthyosaur.

Professor McMenamin claims these ichthyosaur vertebrae were taken out by a sea monster and arranged in this pattern. (Mark McMenamin)

Professor McMenamin asserts that the bones’ arrangement and the location of the sucker markings indicate the ichthyosaur was drowned or had its neck snapped. From there, it seems the beast was moved, possibly to the Kraken’s lair, where it was dumped.

Could this discovery really point to the existence of the legendary Kraken? While the idea is interesting, further evidence is necessary.

Imaginary view of a gigantic octopus seizing a ship. (Public Domain)

This article (Are Fossils Linked to the Legendary Kraken Enough to Prove its Terrifying Existence?) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Ancient Mysteries

Native Americans May Have Found Their Atlantis Under The Great Lakes

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Native Americans May Have Found Their Atlantis Under The Great Lakes
Photo Credit: Pexels

Paul SeaburnGuest Writer

Every city or settlement that gets flooded permanently eventually gets nicknamed “Atlantis,” but the real one hasn’t been found and few of these submerged burbs live up to the nickname. That may change with a controversial find at the bottom of Lakes Huron and Michigan which Native Americans believe are artifacts of an ancient post-Ice Age hunting culture lost when the ice melted and the Great Lakes formed. Why is it controversial? The same area is being prepared for the Great Lakes Tunnel which will contain oil and gas pipelines deep under the lakebed. The Native Americans want it preserved. Who will win? Place your bets now.

“This entire story is very disturbing.”

That’s not a good sign if you’re betting on the Native Americans. In February 2020, University of Michigan archaeology professor John O’Shea heard that a subcontracted archaeologist working for Enbridge, the pipeline company in charge of digging the Line 5 Tunnel in the Straits of Mackinac, was told by the company to ignore possible prehistoric cultural artifacts, and later removed from the job when he tried to notify O’Shea. The Straits of Mackinac connect Lake Huron and Lake Michigan and separate Michigan’s Upper and Lower Peninsulas, making them a key area for the tunnel project. They’re also a key part of Native American history, being a crucial trade route. O’Shea has documented evidence of the submerged hunting grounds, but one man can’t fight a pipeline company and the fossil fuel industry.

Mackinac Bridge spanning the Straits of Mackinac

“We didn’t expect to find this — it was really just amazing. My question is, who knew they were there?”

Enter members of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians and the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe. The Detroit Free Press reports that a group of tribe members made it a priority upon themselves to inspect Enbridge’s current Line 5 oil and natural gas pipelines on the floor of Straits of Mackinac using a remote-operated underwater vehicle. What they didn’t expect to find were stones arranged in circular and linear patterns on the floor of the Lake Huron side. Now, the mostly female group wants Enbridge to stop the pipeline until the area can be properly studied. It would not be wise to mess with them, Kelly Willis, a Chippewa, told the Free Press.

“In our culture, women traditionally are water protectors, as all life comes from the water.”

The Free Press reports Enbridge did not respond to requests for comments. However, the company had previous said the area was inspected and no signs of artifacts were found. Needless to say, this is a battle of modern money versus the ancient and little-known history of prehistoric Native Americans in the area – history that occurred when near the end of the last Ice Age when it was above water.

“For a 2,000 to 3,000-year period, that was the state of play.”

O’Shea says the period occurred between 11,000 and 9,000 years ago when “post-Ice Age hunters” moved north as the ice retreated and the climate warmed, creating a new forests filled with plants and animals. They may have walked between what is now northern Michigan and central Ontario on the now-submerged Alpena-Amberley limestone ridge, a path that would also be used by migrating caribou. Along the way, the hunters erected stone structures – what the Native Americans now believe is their Atlantis.

“These stone structures, they’re rocks. They don’t survive on land because of development, farmers clearing fields, other things. But under water, they are so perfectly preserved, Pompeii-like, on the lake bottom. But they are also easy to destroy. My concern is that they simply don’t destroy something that might be there.”

7 Things you probably didn’t know about the lost city of Atlantis. (Click here to read the full article!)Formun Üstü

Those familiar with the tunnel project will surely point out that is being drilled in the bedrock underneath the lake floor where the artifacts are located. O’Shea fears that “some of the spoils from the tunnel digging are going to go back onto the lake bottom.” Terri Wilkerson says she and the female tribe members are taking a tough stance.

“Enbridge should be shut out completely on this. The tribes first, and the state, should take the lead on investigating this. And Enbridge should be blocked now from disturbing anything in that area. This is a big deal, it seems to me.”

They are the water protectors. This is their Atlantis, put there by their ancestors. Would you mess with them?

There’s still time to place your bets.

Recommended Articles by Paul Seaburn
About the Author

Paul Seaburn is the editor at Mysterious Universe and its most prolific writer. He’s written for TV shows such as “The Tonight Show”, “Politically Incorrect” and an award-winning children’s program. He’s been published in “The New York Times” and “Huffington Post” and has co-authored numerous collections of trivia, puzzles and humour. His “What in the World!” podcast is a fun look at the latest weird and paranormal news, strange sports stories and odd trivia. Paul likes to add a bit of humour to each MU post he crafts. After all, the mysterious doesn’t always have to be serious.

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Ancient Mysteries

The Ancestral Myth Of The Hollow Earth And Underground Civilizations

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The Ancestral Myth Of The Hollow Earth And Underground Civilizations
Photo Credit: Bernard Gagnon/Wikimedia Commons

Countless stories, myths, and legends are told about underground cities and subterranean civilizations spread through a vast network of interconnected tunnels across the planet.

There are many rumours surrounding these underground portals. We have only to remember the mysterious stories that revolve around the tunnels and galleries of the Cueva de los Tayos in Ecuador, or stories about entrances to underground worlds, supposedly located in the Andes, the Himalayas, the Gobi Desert, Turkey, and even below the Sphinx of Giza.

The Hollow Earth Theory and an Expedition to the Arctic

The Hollow Earth Theory states that the Earth is a hollow planet with ancient entrances to the subterranean world scattered throughout it, including near both polar caps. This theory has been reported since ancient times and scientists such as Edmund Halley have defended it throughout history.

From 1818-1826, the American John C. Symmes passionately supported the theory as well. According to him, there was a subterranean world inside our planet illuminated by a tiny sun, and that included mountains, forests, and lakes. Symmes launched a national campaign aiming to raise the necessary funds to send an expedition to the Arctic to search for an entrance to the subterranean world. He even sent a proposal to the United States Congress, with the intention of getting government assistance to find the entrance to the inner world.

Unfortunately for him, he died before the government did allocate funding for his purpose and the expedition departed in 1838, although, in truth, its goals were not so altruistic. In reality it was part of the ploy as world powers were trying to learn the importance of the only land not yet conquered the world: both polar caps. Regardless, commanded by Charles Wilkes, the expedition lasted four years. It served to discover the vast geographical extent of the Arctic, but no sign of a passage into the earth was found.

The entrance to the Hollow Earth according to Symmes, as he believed we would see it from the moon with a telescope. Illustration of Harper’s New Monthly Magazine October 1882 (Public Domain)

Nonetheless, the idea of Symmes remained anchored in the minds of a handful of writers (who tend to love the search for attainment of seemingly impossible dreams.) Thus,  Edgar Allan Poe , Jules Verne , and  HP Lovecraft, among many others, paid tribute to the fascinating theory of the Hollow Earth.

Illustration drawn by Edouard Riou in 1864 from the original edition of “Journey to the Center of the Earth” by the famous Jules Verne. (Wikimedia Commons)

Interest in the Hollow Earth theory did not end there. In fact, in twentieth century, with knowledge of geography and geology of the earth, that was still lacking, there were those who continued trying to access that mysterious world under the earth’s crust. For example, some of the Nazi leaders, the lovers of ancient myths and the occult in Germany, showed a marked interest in these types of theories.

History of Hollow Earth Theory

Edmund Halley (1656 – 1742), the English scientist who studied the comet that bears his name, may have been the first to develop a scientific hypothesis about the Hollow Earth. After a series of observations of the Earth’s magnetic field, Halley concluded that the anomalies observed could only be explained if the Earth was composed of two spheres: an external solid one and an internal hollow one, each with its own magnetic axis.

Edmund Halley with a drawing showing shells of his hollow earth theory. (1736) (Wikimedia Commons)

Later on, another American, Cyrus Teed, became convinced that it is mathematically impossible to discern whether we are inside or outside of a sphere, so we could live inside a hollow universe. In the center it would be the Sun, with the planets and stars only appearing bright to us because they reflect sunlight on the surface of the concave Earth. This land was called Koresh – which is the Hebrew translation of his own name, Cyrus. Teed even founded a church and its adherents remained active and defending these ideas until at least 1982.

With the dawn of the twentieth century other scholars, such as William Reed and Marshall Gardner, also believed they could provide evidence of the existence of an inner world. One of the most curious facts wielded as an argument, made ​​by some Arctic explorers, was that air and water temperatures warmed as they approached the North Pole. Based on these and other observations, they also claimed that mammoths were not extinct, but still inhabiting the interior of the Earth.

Mammoth model exhibited at the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria, Canada. Some scientists believed that warm temperatures near the North Pole could be evidence that the mammoths lived on…in the hollow earth.

As previously mentioned, there were Nazi leaders who supported the hollow earth theory. Adolf Hitler also believed in the hollow earth theory, but for him it provided the location where the “pure” and “perfect” Aryans who he thought dominated the world would meet. What is more, the German Thule Society – the main esoteric circle of the time, held a very close hypothesis, although theirs was related to the myths of lost underground kingdoms of Agartha and Shambhala.

Adolf Hitler and several of his colleagues firmly believed in the Hollow Earth Theor. (Wikimedia Commons)

Meanwhile, the first man to fly over the poles, Richard E. Byrd, in his report said he “inspected about 26,000 km (16,155.7 miles) around and beyond the Pole.” This simple sentence with the words “beyond the Pole” are the foundation on which many advocates of the hollow earth theory accuse the US government (who funded Byrd’s flight) of a cover-up, saying that Byrd went into the Inner Earth.

The arctic continent or Hyperborea as shown in the Gerardus Mercator Atlas of 1595 (Public Domain)
Shambhala Myths and Agartha

Myths are as old as humanity itself, so are the myths of beings that inhabit the depths of the Earth. In contrast to the angels of heaven, tradition generally sent demons underground. A clear example is the Christian hell. 

In contrast, Central Asian Buddhists believe in the wonderful land under our feet which is known as Agartha (or Agartta). Agartha is supposedly a place where beings are more beautiful and much wiser than we are and which has a king that has the power to read the human soul.

For thousands of years Tibetan scholars, besides teaching about an inner world, say they are in contact with this “King of the Inner World” or supreme ruler for the entire planet, for whom the  Dalai Lama is a representative for the outside world. They also speak and write about tunnels that connect Tibet with the inner world (which they protect), saying that there are many others scattered across the Earth, such as those found under the great pyramids of Egypt and South America. Entrances to subterranean cities also are said to exist around the vast Amazon Basin, for example connecting the lost city of “El Dorado“ with the rest of the ancient world.

The capital of this inner world – and therefore of the whole world is said to be a city called Shambhala where the King of the World resides and his court of advanced beings teach some of humanity about science, art, religion, and philosophy.

According to ancient Tibetan myths, pyramids of Central and South America (pictured, Tikal in Guatemala) are settled on vast networks of underground tunnels, connecting the ancient cities with the sacred kingdom they refer to as Agartha. (Wikimedia Commons)

The Shambhala Tibetan headquarters of the “spiritual government of humanity,” may be located in the vicinity of Balkh, a former Afghan settlement known as “the mother of cities” according to the prestigious scholar on Tibet, Alexandra David-Neel. The folk traditions of Afghanistan say that after the Muslim conquest, Balkh was called Shams-i-Bala (Candle High) which seems a transformation from the Sanskrit Shambhala into Persian.

Ancient Aliens: The Hollow Earth Theory 

This article (The Ancestral Myth of the Hollow Earth and Underground Civilizations) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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