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Quantum Teleportation Has Been Reported In A Qutrit For The First Time

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Quantum Teleportation Has Been Reported In A Qutrit For The First Time

For the first time, researchers have teleported a qutrit, a tripartite unit of quantum information. The independent results from two teams are an important advance for the field of quantum teleportation, which has long been limited to qubits—units of quantum information akin to the binary “bits” used in classical computing.

These proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that qutrits, which can carry more information and have greater resistance to noise than qubits, may be used in future quantum networks.

Chinese physicist Guang-Can Guo and his colleagues at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) reported their results in a preprint paper on April 28, although that work remains to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. On June 24 the other team, an international collaboration headed by Anton Zeilinger of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and Jian-Wei Pan of USTC, reported its results in a preprint paper that has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters. That close timing—as well as the significance of the result—has each team vying for credit and making critiques of the other’s work.

“Each of these [experiments] is an important advance in the technology of teleportation,” says William Wootters, a physicist at Williams College, who was not involved with either study.

Beam Me Up?

The name quantum teleportation brings to mind a technology out of Star Trek, where “transporters” can “beam” macro scale objects—even living humans—between far-distant points in space. Reality is less glamorous. In quantum teleportation, the states of two entangled particles are what is transported—for instance, the spin of an electron. Even when far apart, entangled particles share a mysterious connection; in the case of two entangled electrons, whatever happens to one’s spin influences that of the other, instantaneously.

Teleportation” also conjures visions of faster-than-light communication, but that picture is wrong, too. If Alice wants to send Bob a message via quantum teleportation, she has to accompany it with classical information transported via photons—at the speed of light but no faster. So what good is it?

Oddly enough, quantum teleportation may also have important utility for secure communications in the future, and much of the research is funded with cyber security applications in mind. In 2017 Pan, Zeilinger and their colleagues used China’s Micius satellite to perform the world’s longest communication experiment, across 7,600 kilometres. Two photons—each acting as a qubit—were beamed to Vienna and China. By taking information about the state of the photons, the researchers in each location were able to effectively construct an unhackable password, which they used to conduct a secure video call. The technique acts like a wax seal on a letter: any eavesdropping would interfere and leave a detectable mark.

Researchers have attempted to teleport more complicated states of particles with some success. In a study published in 2015 Pan and his colleagues managed to teleport two states of a photon: its spin and orbital angular momentum. Still, each of these states was binary—the system was still using qubits. Until now, scientists had never teleported any more complicated state.

Making The Impossible

A classical bit can be a 0 or 1. Its quantum counterpart, a qubit, is often said to be 0 and 1—the superposition of both states. Consider, for instance, a photon, which can exhibit either horizontal or vertical polarization. Such qubits are breezily easy for researchers to construct.

A classical trit can be a 0, 1 or 2—meaning a qutrit must embody the superposition of all three states. This makes qutrits considerably more difficult to make than qubits.

To create their qutrits, both teams used the triple-branching path of a photon, expressed in carefully orchestrated optical systems of lasers, beam splitters and barium borate crystals. One way to think about this arcane arrangement is the famous double-slit experiment, says physicist Chao-Yang Lu, a co-author of the new paper by Pan and Zeilinger’s team. In that classic experiment, a photon goes through two slits at the same time, creating a wavelike interference pattern. Each slit is a state of 0 and 1, because a photon goes through both. Add a third slit for a photon to traverse, and the result is a qutrit—a quantum system defined by the superposition of three states in which a photon’s path effectively encodes information.

Creating a qutrit from a photon was only the opening skirmish in a greater battle. Both teams also had to entangle two qutrits together—no mean feat, because light rarely interacts with itself.

Crucially, they had to confirm the qutrits’ entanglement, also known as the Bell state. Bell states, named after John Stewart Bell, a pioneer of quantum information theory, are the conditions in which particles are maximally entangled. Determining which Bell state qutrits are in is necessary to extract information from them and to prove that they conveyed that information with high fidelity.

What constitutes “fidelity” in this case? Imagine a pair of weighted dice, Wootters says: If Alice has a dice that always lands on 3, but after she sends it to Bob, it only lands on 3 half of the time, the fidelity of the system is low—the odds are high it will corrupt the information it transmits. Accurately transmitting a message is important, whether the communication is quantum or not. Here, the teams are in dispute about the fidelity. Guo and his colleagues believe that their Bell state measurement, taken over 10 states, is sufficient for a proof-of-concept experiment. But Zeilinger and Pan’s group contends that Guo’s team failed to measure a sufficient number of Bell states to definitively prove that it has high enough fidelity.

Despite mild sniping, the rivalry between the groups remains relatively friendly, even though provenance for the first quantum teleportation of a qutrit hangs in the balance. Both teams agree that each has teleported a qutrit, and they both have plans to go beyond qutrits: to four level systems—ququarts—or even higher.

Some researchers are less convinced, though. Akira Furusawa, a physicist at the University of Tokyo, says that the method used by the two teams is ill-suited for practical applications because it is slow and inefficient. The researchers acknowledge the criticism but defend their results as a work in progress.

“Science is step by step. First, you make the impossible thing possible,” Lu says. “Then you work to make it more perfect.”

The research has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters and is available on the pre-print server arXiv.org.

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University Mathematician Decodes The Crop Circle With A Binary Code & Extraterrestrial Face

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University Mathematician Decodes The Crop Circle With A Binary Code & Extraterrestrial Face

Did you know that crop circles are actually real? How they’re made and who or what is making them is up for debate, but the existence of intricate, remarkable and very complex designs that are “sown” into crop fields all around the world is a fact that’s not open for debate. Looking at some of these designs, especially footage taken from a plane or a helicopter, should give you goosebumps.

Why? Richard Taylor, a physicist from the University of Oregon, outlines it best. Despite ridiculing any type of ‘supernatural’ explanation for these designs, he states that this is “the most science-oriented art movement in history.” It’s also interesting to note that many of these designs have been studied in a laboratory setting, as some of the nodes of these stalks are blasted out on one side. Not many people know this about crop circles, but the crops are not simply flattened. It’s quite clear that some sort of high level technology is being used. (source)

This ‘blasting’ effect has been replicated by highly localized microwave heating, which causes water inside the crop to vaporize and dislodge. As a result, the stock flops completely over to one side. Because of this, Taylor concludes that crop circle artists are using GPS devices, lasers, and microwaves to create these astonishing patterns of geometric forms due to the measurements he found in his research.

There will always be those who reject some sort of supernatural hypothesis, but for those who actually look deeper into the crop circle phenomenon, it’s hard to argue that something strange isn’t happening. Personally, I would say it’s obvious.

The crop circle you see above appeared in 2002 in a field near Crabwood, United Kingdom. Yes, it was real. It’s been filmed, documented and photographed. There is footage all over the internet. It made a lot of noise as it’s documented in the Crop Circle archives and has been researched by multiple scholars all over the world.  Here is some great helicopter footage of the Crabwood circle with Terje Toftenes, an award-winning Norwegian filmmaker and video producer.

HERE is some more astonishing helicopter footage taken by the photographer of the photos posted below, Lucy Pringle. You can see people standing in the crop circle here as well, it’s quite detailed footage.

Who could do something like this? Who could design a binary code and implant a face within a crop in the dead of night in only a few hours, leaving no entrance or exit marks, while being artistically and mathematically precise?

Miia Pitkonen is one of many scholars who have examined this particular circle. She is a physicist from the University of Helsinki in Finland, specializing in medical physics. You can view his curriculum vitae here.

Clearly, she has an interest in this phenomenon because she published a paper titled “Crop Circles and Life at Parallel Space-Time Sheets.” It’s a two part series, and in it he examines the Crapwood crop circle. (source)

She explains:

“Crabwood message consists of two parts. An alien picture and a picture representing spiral like bit sequence starting from the centre of the picture and proceeding counter clockwise. It has been proposed [59, 60] that the message is coded using 9-bit code and that 8-bit portions obey ASCII code. With this assumption the message reads as:

Beware the bearers of FALSE gifts & their BROKEN PROMISES. Much PAIN but still time. EELI!UVE. There is GOOD out there. We OPpose DECEPTION. Conduit CLOSING\’

Obviously there are one or two incomprehensible words involved (EELI!UVE). There are also two variants of the message in the net. OPpose appears at Paul Vigay’s homeopage and Oppose at at Martin Keitel’s homeopage. In the following both options are considered. One could consider the possibility that the message has much deeper layer than the somewhat oracle-like statement in ASCII code, and that the presence of the little inconsistency might be intended to make clear that a deeper level is involved. What these aliens would like to communicate is something very essential about themselves as a life form. The image of an alien accompanying the bit sequence indeed suggests this. This something very essential could obviously include the code for translating ordinary DNA triplets to amino-acids. Perhaps also the code for translating the exotic RNA doublets to the analogs of amino-acids. These analogs could be even electromagnetic waves. There could be also other codes: just at the time when the Crabwood message had arrived I developed entire hierarchy of cognitive codes based on Mersenne primes and regular polygons constructible using only compass and ruler. The first guess is that the message should be represented by some universal code. The appearance of 3 × 3 = 9-bit code words decomposing naturally to 3 sequences of 3-bits suggests that a cognitive code consistent with genetic code might be involved. This guess was very useful in that it led to the identification of the genetic code of exotic RNA and the decomposition of 3 3-bit portions also suggests immediately that information about RNA is in question. It however turned out that ASCII code is the proper manner to interpret the message, ninth bit serves as a separation sign only. The interpretation relies on extremely general aspects of the ASCII code: capital and small letters correspond to amino-acids and capital and small forms of a given letter denote for the same amino-acid. Control signs denote the amino-acidic counterparts for the code associated with the exotic RNA. The ordering of the symbols does not matter. One could also use different kinds of symbols: only the numbers of various kinds of symbols telling how many code words are mapped to a particular amino-acid (or whatever counterpart of it) matter.”

It’s quite complicated, I know. Paul Vigay, a British computer consultant notable for work in developing and supporting RISC OS software and long-time researcher in the field, was the first to discover that the message was encoded in ASCI binary code. He also worked with Mel Gibson on the film Signs, but unfortunately died a very mysteries death.

“Beware the bearers of false gifts and their broken promises. Much pain but still time. (Damaged word.) There is good out there. We oppose deception. Conduit closing (bell sound).”

Below is another great screen shot taken by a helicopter.

Below is another great screen shot taken by a helicopter.
Image source: Collective Evolution

Pitkonen’s paper is quite in-depth and states that the makers of this circle, whoever/whatever they are, could be using this type of specific code, and much more. One thing is for certain: Whoever made this circle is extremely artistically, technologically, and mathematically advanced to a point beyond belief.

Below is a screenshot of the last part of her paper expressing the same conclusion that many of us have come to, the realization that something amazing is going on here.

Pitkonen, in her paper, also goes into great detail and analysis regarding a broadcast (known as the “Arecibo” message) that was put together by Carl Sagan and his colleagues in 1974. It was sent into space via radio waves at a special ceremony to celebrate the remodelling of the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. It was the most powerful broadcast ever deliberately beamed out into space. Directed at a star cluster sitting approximately 25,000 light years away, it consisted of a pictorial message depicting our planet’s location in our solar system, the core principles of our math and science, and the NASA antenna used to transmit the signal in the hopes that it would be interpreted by an extraterrestrial intelligence. The message also included details about human beings, such as our physical appearance and DNA code. The signal was a million times stronger than the typical TV transmission.

27 years later, in 2001, the crop circle phenomenon gained some well-deserved attention when a pattern in the form of a response to the 1974 broadcast appeared right next to Britain’s largest telescope, the Chilbolton, and observatory, home to the world’s largest fully steerable meteorological radar.

Image source: Lucy Pringle
The Takeaway

Why are such discoveries and phenomena ridiculed in the mainstream? And when the mainstream does engage in a discussion about the crop circle phenomenon, why don’t they address the facts presented in this article? Why are these considered to be hoaxes when some of the designs are so complicated, precise and complex that they baffle some of the world’s greatest minds? What’s going on here?

There are facts about our reality that are so mind-altering that the human mind, in many cases, will instantly dismiss them. On a collective level, clearly we are all not ready to examine this phenomenon, and no matter how much evidence is in support of it, it always be greeted with ridicule and skepticism.

Something extraordinary is happening here, and it has been happening for years. It could have tremendous implications for humanity as we continue to slowly but surely open our minds to concepts that do not yet fit within the framework of accepted knowledge.

If you enjoyed reading this article and want to see more like this one, we’d be humbled if you would help us spread the word and share it with your friends and family. Join us in our quest to promote free, useful information to all!

This article was written by Arjun Walia for Collective Evolution where it was originally published and has been republished under Creative Commons.

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The World’s Smallest MRI Machine Just Captured The Magnetic Field Of A Single Atom

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The World's Smallest MRI Machine Just Captured The Magnetic Field of a Single Atom

Using a new technique, scientists have performed the world’s smallest magnetic resonance imaging to capture the magnetic fields of single atoms. It’s an incredible breakthrough that could improve quantum research, as well as our understanding of the Universe on subatomic scales.

“I am very excited about these results,” said physicist Andreas Heinrich of the Institute for Basic Sciences in Seoul. “It is certainly a milestone in our field and has very promising implications for future research.”

You’re probably most familiar with magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, as a method used to image internal body structures in medicine. An MRI machine uses highly powerful magnets to induce a strong magnetic field around the body, forcing the spin of the protons in the nuclei of your body’s hydrogen atoms to align with the magnetic field, all without producing side-effects.

A radio frequency current is then applied to stimulate the protons, causing them to strain against the field; when this is switched off, sensors can detect the energy released by the protons as they relax back into the magnetic field alignment, and translate this signal into an image.

But for medical MRI scanners, this needs to be occurring en masse, with billions of protons, for the sensors to detect it.

To bring the process down to much finer scales, the researchers used a scanning tunnelling microscope, an instrument that can image surfaces at the atomic scale by running an extremely fine needle over them.

This was used to probe carefully prepared titanium and iron atoms. With a small cluster of magnetised iron atoms attached to the tip, it became a tiny MRI machine, aligning the electrons – rather than the protons – in the sample.

All they needed to do then was add pulses of radiofrequency current, which allowed the sensors to detect the energy released by the electrons, producing an image of the magnetic field of a single titanium or iron atom.

Magnetic field interactions between the atom and the instrument. (Wilke et al., Nature Physics, 2019)

“It turns out that the magnetic interaction we measured depends on the properties of both spins, the one on the tip and the one on the sample,” explained physicist Philip Wilke of the Institute for Basic Sciences.

“For example, the signal that we see for iron atoms is vastly different from that for titanium atoms. This allows us to distinguish different kinds of atoms by their magnetic field signature, and makes our technique very powerful.”

In addition to this ability to identify the element just from an atom, the technique is so sensitive it can also distinguish atoms that are next to each other.

It’s a really magnificent combination of imaging technologies,” physicist Ahmed Duke Shereen of the Advanced Science Research Center in New York told The New York Times. “Medical MRIs can do great characterisation of samples, but not at this small scale.”

For such small tech, the team has pretty big plans. They believe it will be extraordinarily useful in mapping the magnetic and spin properties not just of individual atoms, but of larger structures too, such as molecules.

It could also be used to characterise and control quantum systems, which of course would be really handy for the developing field of quantum computing.

“The ability to map spins and their magnetic fields with previously unimaginable precision allows us to gain deeper knowledge about the structure of matter and opens new fields of basic research,” Heinrich said.

The research has been published in Nature Physics.

If you enjoyed reading this article and want to see more like this one, we’d be humbled if you would help us spread the word and share it with your friends and family. Join us in our quest to promote free, useful information to all!

This article was written by Michelle Starr for Science Alert where it was originally published and has been republished under Creative Commons.

Featured image: Nature Physics.

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7 Signs Your Vibration Is Raising

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5 Signs Your Vibration Is Raising

We all vibrate energetically at a particular frequency. The lower the frequency, the denser your energy, and the heavier your problems will seem to you.

Your vibration is your personal energy frequency. It is a culmination of every life you have ever lived, every thought you have ever had and every action you have ever performed. It is the energy that surrounds and permeates every cell in your body. 

The higher the frequency of your energy or vibration, the lighter you feel in your physical, emotional, and mental bodies. You experience greater personal power, clarity, peace, love, and joy. You have little, if any, discomfort or pain in your physical body, and your emotions are easily dealt with. Your energy is literally full of light! Your life flows with synchronicity, and you manifest what you desire with ease. Overall, your life takes on a positive quality.

7 SIGNS YOUR VIBRATION IS RAISING

1. Energy Increases

Your general energy level increases, giving you more stamina physically and mentally. You might notice you are less sleepy during the day, can read or focus longer on a task. The rising consciousness is literally a speed increase in mental frequency, and that puts you on a different energy plane.

2. Food Interests Change

Have you tried to eat your favourite burger and realize how much you now dislike it? With a spiritual rise, common food may no longer taste the same. Not to say you’ll have a total dietary overhaul, but the food you might’ve enjoyed in the past may feel different once in your new system. The higher your consciousness, the higher frequency your body will be operating on, the cleaner your system becomes. So you may end up noticing the toxicity in some of the food you regularly consume. Gradually you gravitate towards cleaner, higher vibration options like organic vegetables, fruits and grains.

3. Faster Learning – Cosmic Downloads

Your soul rise may induce quicker learning and you might begin to have knowledge in areas you previously never studied. When in the past it might’ve taken you a few hours to read or understand a topic, you begin understanding in waves. Linear thought integrates with holistic, and your stronger cosmic connection makes you a clearer channel for a flow of light (information) to integrate within your psyche. That light touches your DNA, your cells, giving you access to more intelligence. Sometimes this happens over time, other times it can feel like your mind’s been jolted with electricity and the knowing is instantly present.

4. You Cross Paths With More Conscious People

You might feel down about losing some friends due to your rise but fear not. Another transformation sign is the introduction of new, conscious human beings into your life. You attract them just like your opportunities. Since you begin investing time in conscious places, you increase the chances of meeting like-minded people. You might recognize each other from “keywords” you use, certain lingo or definitions. There might be something about the person’s energy you feel, and they from you.

5. Increased Interest in Helping Others

Since you’re giving more attention to world events, something reaches deep within you to assist. As your energy elevates, you have a higher reserve for self-healing and extra energy to offer others. Not only do you have the strength, but also now a mission begins brewing inside. There’s a cause that you feel compelled to take on. So you begin sharing positive messages, news, your talents in as many ways as you can to see other people come to their rise.

6. Friendships Dissolve

As your consciousness matures, you see more, and what never bothered you in your friendships begin to reach your awareness. There may also be times when your interests strongly differ from your friends. They may want to get drunk one night while you no longer feel that’s important, for example. As you start focusing on other matters, the time you invest with friends who aren’t moving with you may decrease. Eventually, you receive an intuitive understanding that you don’t share the same likes any longer. Sometimes it happens with a clash and sometimes there’s mutual understanding. Either way, the same friends you had before no longer stick around.

7. Increased Interest In World Events

As you see more, you’ll begin giving attention to global news. Not specifically the television, but your interest about what’s happening in the world will increase. With your thoughts and friends changing and energy increasing, you naturally gravitate towards those matters that influence world events. Seeing catastrophic situations, starvation or harm done to animals may trigger you on a deeper level, moving you towards some passion to take action.

If you see these signs, then you know that you are making good progress on your spiritual journey.

Always Remember! “The universe is not punishing you or blessing you. The universe is responding to the vibrational attitude that you are emitting.” ~ Abraham Hicks

If you enjoyed reading this article and want to see more like this one, we’d be humbled if you would help us spread the word and share it with your friends and family. Join us in our quest to promote free, useful information to all!

Source of article: Crown of Mind, Fractal Enlightenment & Huff Post

Featured image: Collective Evolution

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The International Space Station Captured A Stunning Photo Of An Erupting Volcano

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The International Space Station Captured A Stunning Photo Of An Erupting Volcano

A towering mushroom-shaped cloud of ash and smoke recently rose from a volcano on an island in the Pacific Ocean, and astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) were able to capture this spectacular image.

The volcano Raikoke is located on the Kuril Islands, an archipelago of volcanic peaks that lies between Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula and Japan’s Hokkaido Island. According to NASA, the volcano erupted at around 4:00 AM local time on June 22 and the ash from the volcanic plume reached an altitude of 43,000 feet (13 km). Plumes like Raikoke’s, which were tall enough to reach the Earth’s stratosphere, are often closely observed since they have effects on the climate and could pose danger to flying aircrafts.

The photo featured above shows the volcanic plume rising in a narrow column and then spreading out in a part of the plume known as the umbrella region. This happens as a result when the ash cloud’s density equalizes with the density of the air around it.

“The ring of white puffy clouds at the base of the column might be a sign of ambient air being drawn into the column and the condensation of water vapour,” Simon Carn, a volcanologist at Michigan Tech, told NASA Earth Observatory. “Or it could be a rising plume from interaction between magma and seawater because Raikoke is a small island and flows likely entered the water.”

The following image was taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite on the morning of Saturday, June 22. NASA said the most concentrated ash was on the western edge of the plume, above Raikoke Volcano, at the time the image was acquired.

NASA’s Terra MODIS satellite captured the ash plume above Raikoke Volcano on the morning of Saturday, June 22, 2019.

According to Live Science, the reason why the photo is perfect is because the ISS photo was taken at an angle and not directly above the volcano, the impressive height, girth and structure of the ash plume is visible, as is the shadow cast by the plume on the cloud cover far below. Clusters of bright white clouds ringing the bottom of the plume are likely water vapour condensation, “or it could be a rising plume from interaction between magma and seawater, because Raikoke is a small island and [magma] flows likely entered the water,” Simon Carn, a volcanologist at Michigan Technical University.

The International Space Station Captured A Stunning Photo Of An Erupting Volcano
Storm winds in the Pacific pulled ash from the Raikoke eruption to the east.
Credit: NASA Earth Observatory

Raikoke is a stratovolcano, which means its slopes are built up from numerous layers of hardened lava and ash. It reaches 1,808 feet (551 m) above sea level, and prior to Raikoke’s 1924 explosion, the volcano’s last recorded activity was in 1778, according to the National Museum of Natural History’s Global Volcanism Program.

The Tokyo and Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory centres have been closely monitoring the Raikoke plume, issuing messages to aviators to inform them that the ash had reached an altitude of 13 km. However, data from NASA’s CALIPSO satellite suggest portions of the plume may have been lofted as much as 16 km high.

If you enjoyed reading this article and want to see more like this one, we’d be humbled if you would help us spread the word and share it with your friends and family. Join us in our quest to promote free, useful information to all!

Source of article: NASA & Live Science

Featured images: NASA

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