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NASA Announces “Exciting New Discovery”: Water Confirmed To Exist On The Moon

NASA has finally spilled the details about its stunning new find.

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NASA Announces “Exciting New Discovery”: Water Confirmed To Exist On The Moon
Photo Credit: Getty

After a week of dropping tantalizing hints about an “exciting new discovery” it had made, NASA has finally spilled the details about its stunning new find: there is water on the sunlit surface of the moon – and much, much more than previously expected.

While water ice has previously been found on the moon in the past – mainly in the frigid, shadowed regions of the moon’s huge craters and north and south poles – this is the first time that water has been found on those surfaces exposed to sunlight.

It was previously believed that if water on the lunar surface had been exposed to the warming radiation of the sun, it would evaporate.

However, it turns out that water molecules are trapped within mineral grains across the moon, with more water likely hidden in the ice patches residing under the permanent shadows along the lunar surface, which are believed to have not seen any sunlight for billions of years.

A team of researchers is reporting that the moon could have some 40,000 square kilometres of permanent shadows where hidden pockets of water in the form of ice could be harboured.

The discovery that water is capable of withstanding lunar conditions under sunlight could have major implications for any future efforts to settle the moon as a human settlement, offering a precious resource that future astronauts could potentially use for drinking, or as an ingredient in the production of rocket fuel.

“We had indications that H2O – the familiar water we know – might be present on the sunlit side of the moon,” said Paul Hertz, the director of the astrophysics division of the science mission directorate at NASA’s Washington headquarters. “Now we know it is there. This discovery challenges our understanding of the lunar surface and raises intriguing questions about resources relevant for deep space exploration.”

The discovery, which is detailed in a pair of papers published by the journal Nature, relied on NASA’s airborne Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, which is a Boeing 747SP aircraft modified to carry a telescope..

One team led by Casey Honniball of the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland found molecular water on the lunar surface, trapped within natural glasses or between grains of debris. While past observations had difficulty discerning between water and hydroxyl – its molecular cousin –the new detection method offered clear findings.

However, the identified hydrogen and oxygen molecules are quite far apart, meaning that they are not lying in puddles or solid blocks of ice.

“A lot of people think that the detection I’ve made is water ice, which is not true. It’s just the water molecules — because they’re so spread out they don’t interact with each other to form water ice or even liquid water,” Honniball said.

The scientists believe that the water could have travelled by way of solar winds or from micrometeorites that contained some water.

Another paper found that the Moon’s “billions” of tiny craters have offered the ideal texture for creating shadowy regions across the moon, offering perfect conditions to hold frozen ice. Some of the shadows are no bigger than a small coin, according to researchers led by planetary scientist Paul Hayne of the University of Colorado, Boulder.

“Our research shows that a multitude of previously unknown regions of the moon could harbour water ice,” Hayne said. “Our results suggest that water could be much more widespread in the moon’s Polar Regions than previously thought, making it easier to access, extract and analyse.”

It still remains to be determined whether the water, which appears to be extant across our natural satellite, will be easily accessible to future explorers or settlers.

“We don’t know yet if we can use it as a resource, but learning about water on the moon is key for our Artemis exploration plans,” NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine noted in a tweet.

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Astronomy

The Universe May Have “Warped Fifth Dimension” – And New Particle Could Unlock It

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The Universe May Have “Warped Fifth Dimension” – And New Particle Could Unlock It
Photo Credit: TMU

(TMU) A team of researchers believe that they have found a natural explanation for dark matter and a number of other scientific oddities that have so far defied explanation, but their work hinges on the existence of a new theoretical subatomic particle as well as an entirely new “warped fifth dimension” of the universe.

While the sentence seems like the premise of a brain-bending science fiction tale, it’s actually the takeaway from a recent study that researchers hope can shed light on some longstanding mysteries of science.

The new speculative particle, which remains undiscovered, is a type of fermion – or subatomic particle – that would be able to travel through this new dimension and bind dark matter to the luminous matter that comprises everything visible and physical in the universe, reports Motherboard.

Moreover, the theoretical existence of this particle is consistent with other models on how dark matter behaves. While this all seems far-fetched, and appears to the lay person to be a case of physicists bending the rules of the universe to explain their own theory, their research has just been published last month in the The European Physical Journal C.

According to the study, “the presence of new physics” can help lift the veil on these processes that are presently enshrouded in mystery by offering a model of the universe with a fifth dimension that these particles can traverse.

The study was authored by theoretical physicists Javier Castellano and Matthias Neubert at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz’s PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence, along with Adrián Carmona, an Athenea3i fellow at the department of theoretical physics and the cosmos at the University of Granada.

The researchers told Motherboard that this new particle would be capable interacting with the Higgs Boson, and would be similar to the elementary particle, but would also be too heavy for any of the current-generation particle colliders and accelerators to detect.

However, the existence of the particle and its fifth dimension would represent “a unique window” into the mysteries of dark matter, according to the scientists.

Scientists may have identified what existed before our Universe. Click here to read the article.

“If this heavy particle exists, it would necessarily connect the visible matter that we know and that we have studied in detail with the constituents of the dark matter, assuming that dark matter is composed out of fundamental fermions, which live in the extra dimension,” one of the physicists explained.

“This is not a far-fetched idea, since we know that ordinary matter is made of fermions and that, if this extra dimension exists, they will very likely propagate into it,” they added.

Related CS Article: Nobel Prize Winner Says There Were Universes Before The Big Bang And We Can See The Evidence

While actually proving that this hypothetical subatomic particle and the fifth dimension exists remains difficult at the present time, the researchers believe that their study and the model it lays out can help scientists in future studies of cosmology and particle physics.

“This could also eventually lead to an interesting cosmological history of the universe and might lead to the production of gravitational waves,” they added.

“This is an interesting line of research, which we plan to follow in the months ahead.”

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FM Radio Signal Detected Coming From Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede

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FM Radio Signal Detected Coming From Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede
Photo Credit: NASA

Paul SeaburnGuest Writer

Does anyone listen to FM radio anymore? NASA does and it’s a good thing they do – otherwise, we might have missed an FM signal coming from Ganymede, one of the larger moons of Jupiter. What do the residents of Ganymede listen to? Rock? Rap? Techno-pop? Space-age bachelor pad music? Ganymedean folk music?

“Since its first orbit in 2016, Juno has delivered one revelation after another about the inner workings of this massive gas giant. With the extended mission, we will answer fundamental questions that arose during Juno’s prime mission while reaching beyond the planet to explore Jupiter’s ring system and largest satellites.”

Before we do the big reveal, it’s important to note that this is the second time NASA’s the Juno mission has been in the mainstream media this week. First, the space agency announced a mission extension for Juno to September 2025, the projected “best used by” date of the spacecraft. This gives Juno more time to gather close-up data on Jupiter, its rings and three of its largest moons — Ganymede, Europa, and Io. Ganymede is not only its largest moon (bigger that Mercury in size but not mass) but the only one known to have a magnetic field.

Ganymede
What does this have to do with its FM radio signal – you haven’t forgotten about that, have you?

No, not forgotten – just hoping to delay the disappointing news.

It’s not E.T. It’s more of a natural function.”

Not only was the signal natural, the event was so insignificant that the response to the media was delivered by Patrick Wiggins, one of NASA’s Solar System Ambassadors in Utah. These are over 1,000 volunteer ambassadors (you can look yours up here) – many with backgrounds in science, space, teaching, etc. – who engage with the public to communicate information on NASA’s missions. Patrick Wiggins is retired from Utah’s Hansen Planetarium and works part time with the University of Utah Department of Physics and Astronomy. For a more disappointing but interesting observation on the signal, here’s one from Curiosmos.com

“If you need the scientific name, the signal was a “decametric radio emission” but we actually know it by its much more widespread name – Wi-Fi. The range of the frequency corresponds to that used by our Earthly signals.”

Jupiter’s decametric radio emission was first discovered in 1955 by B.F. Burke and K.L. Franklin at the frequency of 22.2 MHz. The current one was detected by Juno while orbiting near Jupiter’s polar regions close to the magnetic field that connects with Ganymede. It’s believed to have been caused by electrons oscillating slower than their normal rate – a process known as cyclotron maser instability. (Possible prog-rock band or album name?)

Before you sulk away dejectedly, this “decametric radio emission” was the first ever detected from Ganymede. While not broadcast from an FM tower by an intelligent life form, a connection could be found in the future – perhaps even from Juno – because Ganymede has an internal ocean that may contain more water than there is on Earth.

In mythology, Ganymede was a Trojan prince desired by Zeus (the Greek Jupiter), who carried him off to be the cupbearer of the gods. Will Ganymede the moon bear the cup of news of extraterrestrial life beyond Earth? It’s up to you, Juno.

Recommended Articles by Paul Seaburn
About the Author

Paul Seaburn is the editor at Mysterious Universe and its most prolific writer. He’s written for TV shows such as “The Tonight Show”, “Politically Incorrect” and an award-winning children’s program. He’s been published in “The New York Times” and “Huffington Post” and has co-authored numerous collections of trivia, puzzles and humour. His “What in the World!” podcast is a fun look at the latest weird and paranormal news, strange sports stories and odd trivia. Paul likes to add a bit of humour to each MU post he crafts. After all, the mysterious doesn’t always have to be serious.

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Evidence To Prove Moon Landings Were Real Goes Completely Missing From NASA

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Evidence To Prove Moon Landings Were Real Goes Completely Missing From NASA
Photo Credit: NASA

Buck RogersGuest Writer

Nearly fifty years after the first moon landing in 1969, many people still wonder if any of the Apollo landings actually happened at all.

The Apollo astronauts who’ve since been asked about their expeditions have maintained the moon landings were legitimate. Astronaut Edgar Mitchell has spoken of his experiences in countless interviews and has always flatly denied the hoax theories. Buzz Aldrin even punched a man in the face for harassing him about whether or not he really walked on the moon.

“Many alternative researchers and sceptics of government and cultural narratives have put together a substantial and rather captivating case that the moon landings were faked with the help of emerging television and film technologies. 

They posit that the government hired acclaimed film director Stanley Kubrick to stage the landings by creating a convincing movie set in a secret location. Evidence to the support the idea that the video is indeed an elaborate forgery includes anomalies such as the appearance of multiple sources of light in the footage, the flag planted by Armstrong seems to be waving in an environment with no wind, there does not appear to be an impact crater from the lunar landing module, unexplainable objects appear in reflection on helmet visors, the unusual slow-motion effect of the astronauts walking on the lunar surface, the lack of visible stars in the background, and more.”Buck Rogers, 2015

Beyond questions about the authenticity of the footage aired on worldwide television, there other parts of the story which to some suggest that the moon landings, as advertised by NASA and the government, were staged events. For example, confusion about how the astronauts were able to safely pass through the Van Allen radiation belts.

These theories won’t go away until some very reasonable questions are answered, something that is less likely to happen with each passing year, especially when you consider that NASA has admitted that the original video footage and telemetry data for the missions is nowhere to be found.

The original recordings of the first humans landing on the moon 40 years ago were erased and re-used, but newly restored copies of the original broadcast look even better, NASA officials said on Thursday.” [Reuters]

Consider that for a moment. Billions of dollar spent on a space race to the moon and after getting there, not only has no one since returned, but telemetric data for the ground-breaking flight is gone.

“I’d go to the moon in a nanosecond. The problem is we don’t have the technology to do that anymore. We used to but we destroyed that technology and it’s a painful process to rebuild it again.”Donald Pettit, Former NASA Astronaut

In the 2005 documentary film, Did We Go?, filmmaker Aron Ranen and crew visited a number of NASA facilities, speaking with high-level NASA scientists, asking them about the missing data. The interviews are revealing, and they make you wonder why such valuable information would be treated so carelessly, or if it the data ever even existed in the first place.

“I haven’t seen anything that indicates the telemetry data is even in existence, and as I said, even if we had it, we don’t have the machines to play it back.” – Gene Kranz, Apollo 11 Flight Director

The film crew also visited NASA’s Goddard Space Center in its hunt for the missing data, speaking with Dr. David Williams, NASA Archivist at Goddard, who confirmed the data is completely missing.

“We’ve been unable to track it down. I mean we don’t know, uh, where this, this telemetry data ended up, and we don’t know what path it may have taken, so, unfortunately I’m afraid I can’t give you much a clue as to where this data ended up and whether it still exists or not.” – Dr. David Williams, NASA Archivist at Goddard

View the following clip for these interviews. The entire film, ‘Did We Go?,’ can be seen here.

Final Thoughts

The moon landing story is suspicious, and when you also factor in the government’s willingness and capacity to shape public opinion on important events with cooperative media and sophisticated propaganda, you wouldn’t be too far out for having questions.

Consider former President Bill Clinton’s statement on this matter, as written in his personal autobiography, My Life:

“Just a month before, Apollo 11 astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong had left their colleague, Michael Collins, aboard spaceship Columbia and walked on the moon…The old carpenter asked me if I really believed it happened. I said sure, I saw it on television. He disagreed; he said that he didn’t believe it for a minute, that ‘them television fellers’ could make things look real that weren’t. Back then, I thought he was a crank. During my eight years in Washington, I saw some things on TV that made me wonder if he wasn’t ahead of his time.” – Bill Clinton, My Life

What do you think the true story is? Are you a believer of a non-believer?

About the Author

Buck Rogers is the earth-bound incarnation of that familiar part of our timeless cosmic selves, the rebel within. He is a surfer of ideals and meditates often on the promise of happiness in a world battered by the angry seas of human thoughtlessness. He is a staff writer for WakingTimes.com.

This article (Evidence to Prove Moon Landings Were Real Goes Completely Missing from NASA) was originally created and published by Waking Times and is published here under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Buck Rogers and WakingTimes.com. It may be re-posted freely with proper attribution, author bio, and this copyright statement.

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Saturn And Jupiter Will Align And Create Extremely Rare ‘Christmas Star’ During Winter Solstice

Jupiter and Saturn will appear closer together in the night sky than they have in about 800 years.

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Photo Credit: TMU

(TMU) The 2020 holiday season is widely expected to be one unlike any other, due in no small part to the ongoing public health emergency. However, Christmas celebrations will also be unique due to an extremely rare planetary alignment, the likes of which have never been seen since medieval times.

Star-gazers will be in for a major treat come December 21, 2020 – the date of the winter solstice – when Jupiter and Saturn will appear extremely close to one another in our night sky, making the planets appear that they might almost collide and becoming one extremely luminous point of light.

The rare celestial treat coinciding with Christmas week will see the Solar System’s two largest planets appear as a “double planet” for the first time in almost 800 years.

“Alignments between these two planets are rather rare, occurring once every 20 years or so, but this conjunction is exceptionally rare because of how close the planets will appear to one another,” said astronomer Patrick Hartigan in a press release from Rice University in Houston, Texas.

“You’d have to go all the way back to just before dawn on March 4, 1226, to see a closer alignment between these objects visible in the night sky,” he added.

Of course, these massive planets won’t be close to one another. Consider our own planet’s distance from the sun. Astronomers use what’s called astronomical units (au) to measure distances in the sprawling expanse of our solar system. Jupiter lays 5 au from the Earth, while Saturn lays 10 au away.

Since the summer, Jupiter and Saturn have been headed towards each other in our own night sky. And from Dec. 16-25, they will appear to be separated by only less than the diameter of a full moon.

A view showing how the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction will appear in a telescope pointed toward the western horizon at 6 p.m. CST, Dec. 21, 2020. The image is adapted from graphics by open-source planetarium software Stellarium. (This work, “jupsat1,” is adapted from Stellarium by Patrick Hartigan, used under GPL-2.0, and provided under CC BY 4.0 courtesy of Patrick Hartigan)

While astronomers are recommending that the best views will be seen from around the equator, if good weather permits then the alignment will be clear from any location here on Earth.

Jupiter and Saturn will also be clear during the twilight, for roughly an hour after sunset every evening. However, a telescope tilted toward the western sky will be the best way to catch a glimpse of the extremely rare event.

“On the evening of closest approach on Dec 21 they will look like a double planet, separated by only 1/5th the diameter of the full moon,” Hartigan explained. “For most telescope viewers, each planet and several of their largest moons will be visible in the same field of view that evening.”

“The further north a viewer is, the less time they’ll have to catch a glimpse of the conjunction before the planets sink below the horizon.”

Websites like Stellarium will also be helpful in figuring out where you should look for the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction.

If you don’t get a chance to catch Jupiter and Saturn this close together, you can catch the pair again relatively soon – on March 15, 2080.

However, the next time Jupiter and Saturn will be so close in earthly night skies will be in 2400.

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