Scholars have estimated that, prior to the ‘discovery’ of the Americas by Europeans, the pre-contact era population could have been as high as 100 million people. American anthropologist and ethno historian Henry F. Dobyns, most known for his published research on American Indians and Hispanic peoples in Latin and North America, estimated that more than one hundred and twelve million people inhabited the Americas prior to European arrival. He approximated that ten million alone inhabited an area north of the Rio Grande before European contact. In 1983, he revised that number to upwards of eighteen million. (source)(source)(source)
It’s also important to note that other scholars have estimated the number to be as low as ten million, and everything in between. For example, William M. Denovan, Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, believes there were approximately fifty four million inhabitants. (source)
The important point to take fro m this is that there were already a lot of people inhabiting the Americas prior to European contact. People that were advanced, with extensive knowledge of medicine, the cosmos, and much more.
What happened when “first contact” transpired? A massive decline of the indigenous population, that’s what. It’s one of, if not the, most dramatic declines of population in the known history of our planet.
The number of Native Americans quickly shrank by roughly half right after European contact. This alarming transformation is attributed to disease, warfare, enslavement (Indian slave trade), and a disruption of the social systems of the indigenous, all of which had devastating effects on the populations that inhabited the Americas. (source)
Think about this for a moment. A population which was somewhere in the range of ten million to a possible one hundred million people shrank to a few hundred thousand by 1900…
This was, as many scholars believe, nothing short of an extermination, which we can attribute to various causes. David Stannard, American historian and Professor of American Studies at the University of Hawaii, reveals in his work that the native people were caught between imported plagues and barbarous atrocities, which resulted in the annihilation of 95% of their populations. In his book American Holocaust, he asks what kind of people would do such horrendous things to others. He and many others emphasize that the perpetrators of the American Holocaust drew on the same ideologies as would later the architects of the Nazi Holocaust. (source)
It doesn’t seem like things have changed much at all. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the Catholic Church had completely taken over Europe, wielding their power to control both people and ideas. There was no separation of church and state, as all citizens were required to abide by the rules and beliefs of the church. If not, they were deemed outlaws and heretics, and were even hunted and killed. This type of activity and “brainwashing,” so to speak, can be traced back all the way to ancient Rome, and all the way forward into our very recent history. Its influence can be seen in the mass brainwashing and manipulation of our minds today. This point is also made clear by Stannard.
In Canada, for example, “residential schools” were set up all over the country. These were government-sponsored rel igious schools established to assimilate aboriginal children into Euro-Canadian culture, a culture that was made by the ruling elite for everyone else to “fit” into. This system originated in France not long after the arrival of the Europeans into the Americas, and was originally conceived by Christian churches and the Canadian government to educate (brainwash) and convert aboriginal youth and to integrate them into Canadian society.
But was that the real purpose?
When I say Canadian government, I mean the Department of Mining and Natural Resources. In the 1930s, the headmasters of the residential schools were made the legal guardians of all native children, ripping them away from their parents under the oversight of the Department of Mines and Resources. All parents were forced to surrender legal custody of their children to a principal or a church employee, or face imprisonment. A few years later, “Indian Affairs” was taken over by the Federal Government’s Citizenship and Immigration Office. (source)(source)(source)
Children were killed, abused, and raped at these schools. They were also subjected to nutritional experiments by the federal government in the 1940s and the 1950s, and were used as medical test subjects as well. Many of these victims and their bodies have vanished without a trace.
Apart from the massive genocide that killed millions, the residential school program itself is considered to be a genocide. Below are three statements that shed light on the harsh reality of what went on:
“I was just eight, and they’d shipped us down from the Anglican residential school in Alert Bay to the Nanaimo Indian Hospital, the one run by the United Church. They kept me isolated in a tiny room there for more than three years, like I was a lab rat, feeding me these pills, giving me shots that made me sick. Two of my cousins made a big fuss, screaming and fighting back all the time, so the nurses gave them shots, and they both died right away. It was done to silence them.”
– Jasper Jospeh, a sixty four year old native man from British Columbia, speaking while his eyes filled with tears. (source)
“We do know that there were research initiatives that were conducted with regard to medicines that were used ultimately to treat the Canadian population. Some of those medicines were tested in aboriginal communities and residential schools before they were utilized publicly.”
– Chief Wilton Littlechild of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. (source)
“We believe that what’s already been exposed represents only a fraction of the full, true and tragic history of the residential schools. There are no doubt more revelations buried in the archives.”
– Assembly of First Nations Regional Chief Bill Erasmus (source)
Aboriginal people in Canada, in our very recent history, were deliberately killed, and this has been confirmed by eyewitness testimony, documents, government records, and statements of Indian agents and tribal elders. Some estimate the mortality rate in residential schools to be upwards of fifty percent. We are talking about more than 50,000 native children across Canada, possibly more. (source)
The massive genocidal campaign that started hundreds of years ago has continued until this very day. And the fact that this system operated under legal and structural conditions which encouraged, aided, and abetted murder is disturbing to say the least.
Keep in mind, these horrors were perpetrated in Canada; one can only imagine what went on in the United States and South America. So much of our history is hidden from us. The United States alone classifies more than 500 million pages of documents each year. For a historian looking to examine and preserve the history of their nation, how are they supposed to do this when most of their history is being kept hidden or even deliberately altered?
What About Thanksgiving?
“Thanksgiving” is not what most of us grew up to believe it is. It’s simply another holiday that’s been marketed to the people, perhaps for profit? Regardless the reasons, it should truly have people reflect on what happened in the past, and how we can learn from it and move forward in the future.”
Below is a video of six Native American girls school us on the REAL history of Thanksgiving.
Concluding Comments & Why This Information Is So Relevant
Our recent history has shown us that there was a major genocide in Canada – a deliberate mass murder of the indigenous populations by the ruling elite in order to take over their land and its resources and establish their dominance, just as the same group of elite was doing all over the world. This is very recent history, and the brainwashing/assimilation campaign of all people (not just indigenous) continues today. The world has become extremely “Americanized.” Through mass marketing and assimilation tactics, we have been manipulated into leading the same lives and following the same path. This “plan” of “world dominance” and global takeover seems to have started hundreds, if not thousands, of years ago and has extended itself all the way to the present day.
So what can we do now? We can listen to the message of the core of indigenous cultures that occupied this land before we did. It’s time for us to return to our roots, and stop destroying the planet as we have been for so many years. If we don’t choose to change now, it does not look like we will be moving forward.
Below is a video of indigenous leaders and elders sharing and explaining the current transitional time that we are living in.
“There have been wounds of injustice, of oppression, of colonization, of greed, of superstition, all those things which injure the human heart. At the same time there’s been no way for this to be expressed, it’s been held inside. So this ancestral wound is this wound that’s been carried on from generation to generation to generation, this intergenerational trauma. But it was also prophesied and promised that after a period of 500 years that a great, great spiritual spring time would emerge with such power and such intensity that all that had been covered in the cold bitter snow would be revealed and cleansed and purified. And that we would emerge galvanized, reunited as not only the reunion of the Condor and Eagle, but a reunion of the entire human family. This time is now. (This quote was taken from the video below.)”
It is this type of message which we should take from our recent, ugly history. Messages about love, respect, oneness, our connection to mother Earth and our spiritual heritage… among other things.
“We are part of Creation, thus, if we break the laws of Creation we destroy ourselves. We, the Original Caretakers of Mother Earth, have no choice but to follow and uphold the Original Instructions, which sustains the continuity of Life. We recognize our umbilical connection to Mother Earth and understand that she is the source of life, not a resource to be exploited. We speak on behalf of all Creation today, to communicate an urgent message that man has gone too far, placing us in the state of survival. We warned that one day you would not be able to control what you have created. That day is here. Not heeding warnings from both Nature and the People of the Earth keeps us on the path of self destruction. This self destructive path has led to the Fukushima nuclear crisis, Gulf oil spill, tar sands devastation, pipeline failures, impacts of carbon dioxide emissions and the destruction of ground water through hydraulic frocking, just to name a few. In addition, these activities and developments continue to cause the deterioration and destruction of sacred places and sacred waters that are vital for Life.” – Chief Looking Horse (you can view a video of him making this statement here)
This article (Let Us Remember The Biggest Genocide In Human History – The North American Indian Holocaust) was originally created for Collective Evolution and is published here under Creative Commons.
The Great And Powerful Xiongnu
Between approximately 300 BC and 450 AD, there existed a nomadic group known as the Xiongnu. Their ethnic identity has been greatly contested, but they were a very powerful tribal confederation that was considered a great threat to China. In fact, it was their repeated invasions that prompted the small kingdoms of North China to begin erecting barriers, in what later became the Great Wall of China.
The Xiongnu formed their tribal league in the area that is now known as Mongolia. It is believed that they stemmed from the Siberian branch of the Mongolian race, although it has been hotly debated whether they are ethnically Turkic, Mongolic, Yeniseian, Tocharian, Iranian, Uralic, or some mixture. Some say the name “Xiongnu” has the same etymological origin as “Hun,” but this is also controversial. Only a few words from their culture, mostly titles and individual names, were preserved in Chinese sources.
It is believed that the Xiongnu created their empire under the supreme leadership of Modu Chanyu sometime around 209 BC. This political unification allowed them to build stronger armies and use better strategic coordination, turning them into a more formidable state. They adopted many Chinese agriculture techniques, built Chinese-styled homes, and wore silk like the Chinese. The Xiongnu worshipped the sun, moon, heaven, earth, as well as their ancestors. They formed a number of tribes, called the Chubei, Huyan, Lan, Luandi, Qiulin, and Suibu.
The Xiongnu had an established hierarchy system. The leaders following Modu Chanyu formed a dualistic political system, with branches to the right and left. The supreme ruler was known as the “Chanyu” and was equivalent to the Chinese “Son of Heaven.” Under the Chanyu were the “Wise Kings of the Left and Right.” Beneath the Wise Kings were the guli (kuli, ‘kings’), the army commanders, the great governors, the dunghu (tung-hu), the gudu (ku-tu). Directly beneath them were the commanders of groups of either 1000, 100, or ten men. When a Chanyu died, power would pass to his son, or to a younger brother if he did not have a son of age.
Although numerous skirmishes were fought between the Xiongnu and the Han Empire, in 129 BC, a great war broke out between the two arch-enemies. The Han emperor wanted to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people to fight against the Xiongnu, but these attempts were unsuccessful. Forty thousand Chinese cavalry attacked the Xiongnu at the border markets. The war was difficult for the Han due to difficulties transporting food and supplies over long distances, and there was low availability of the fuel they needed to survive the harsh Xiongnu climate. Nevertheless, the Chinese gained control over the Xiongnu, causing instability and weakness of the Xiongnu Empire.
Between 60-53 BC, the Xiongnu empire faced a civil war. Upon the 12th Chanyu’s death, a grandson of his cousin, known as Woyanqudi, took power. This was viewed as usurpation, and led to turmoil. Few supported Woyanqudi, and he eventually fled and committed suicide. As the lineage provided several heirs to the throne, there was disagreement as to who should take over as the 14th Chanyu. Those who supported Woyanqudi pushed for his brother, Tuqi, to be Chanyu in 58 BC. The following year, three more men declared themselves to be Chanyu. This led to a series of forfeitures and defeats. Tuqi was defeated by Huhanye, and then two more claimants appeared: Huhanye’s elder brother Zhizhi, and Runzhen. Zhizhi killed Runzhen in 54 BC, and only Zhizhi and Huhanye were left. Zhizhi grew in power, and Huhanye eventually submitted to the Chinese. After this, power shifted back and forth between the Xiongnu and the Han Dynasty for years, with many battles.
After the Battle of Ikh Bayan in 89 AD, the Northern Xiongnu were driven out of Mongolia, and the Southern Xiongnu became part of Han China. Some believe that the Northern Xiongnu continued west, came under the leadership of Attila, and took on the new name “the Huns.”
The unique culture of the Xiongnu Empire was very powerful during its time. The fortifications that were initially built to keep the Xiongnu away were eventually transformed into the Great Wall of China. This demonstrates the size and power of the Xiongnu – an ancient nomadic group that played an important role in the history of Mongolia and China.
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Medieval Inscription Found In Teutonic Knights’ Castle Of Cēsis
The famous Cēsis Castle in central Latvia has given up an ancient secret carved within its blood-stained stone walls.
Cēsis Castle is one of the most iconic medieval castles in Latvia. Founded in 1213 or 1214 AD by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, it prospered from 1237 AD during its time as one of the key administrative and economic centres of the Teutonic Order. At this time the original fortifications were replaced by a monumental square castellum with various service buildings and outer baileys resulting in what Stephen Turnbull’s 2011 book, Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights, describes as “one of the largest and most powerful castles of the Teutonic Order.”
Ivan the Terrible damaged the castle in 1577 AD during a siege in the Livonian War and Cēsis Castle fell after the Great Northern War of 1700–1721 AD when the Tsardom of Russia contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Today, this magnificent castle is the most visited heritage site in Cēsis, and one of the best preserved archaeological sites in the Baltic States.
Carved Whispers from A Violent Past
During a recent inspection of a previously hidden spiral staircase located in the South Tower of Cēsis Castle that had been inaccessible for centuries, a stone was discovered bearing a unique inscription from the second half of the 16th century. According to a report on LSM.LV the carving is written in Latin and German and represents “the oldest, culturally and historically most significant inscription in stone to have survived at Cēsis Castle,” and parts of it has already been deciphered.
The discovery came after Gundars Kalniņš, head of the Medieval Castle Department at Cēsis Museum, noticed light illuminating the previously unknown engraved coat of arms with the initials “WKVA” carved around it, and again in the middle of the ancient design with what is known as a house mark. Next to the carved shield some German text has now faded, but the angled Latin inscription on the right of the stone reads “Si Deus pro nobis quis contra nos” i.e. “If God is for us, who can be against us” the question asked by the Apostle Paul in his letter to the Romans.
Reverse Engineering the Carving
According to Kalniņš, the ancient carving is only visible under particular lighting conditions and similarly to the rest of the tower’s inner walls the engraved stone was once coated in limewash, but fortunately the archaeologist was able to find enough contrast between the white coating and the engraving to read the text, and after close examination it was determined that the design had been executed with a “pointed iron tool,” which he says would have blunted during the job.
Kalniņš also says the content of the writing suggests that the inscription may have been made during the siege of Cēsis Castle in 1577 AD, and he says this episode of the Livonian War has gone down in history as one of the most tragic events in 16th century Europe. The archaeologists said that for five days the Russian heavy artillery battered the castle walls until they besieged the garrison. Many ordinary townsfolk who “blew themselves up” unwilling to succumb to Tsar Ivan the Terrible, and many hundreds of Livonians died in this tragedy.
Trapped in Shadows for 500 Years
So far as what this symbolic inscription might have represented to its maker, Kalniņš says that in the Middle Ages Latvia town dwellers adopted “rune-like symbols as a kind of coat of arms,” used by owners of property to identify their most valuable possessions. Known as a personal “house mark,” the carved symbol is a form of signature, stamp and seal, and while the specific carver will never be known, this specific decorative shield is characteristically from the second half of the 16th century.
And the reason this timeworn motif has gone unnoticed for 500 years is because it was only last year that archaeologists gained access the South Tower of Cēsis Castle to restore the tower’s ceilings and winding stairs, which are referred to at the castle as “Tall Hermann,” matching the name of the tower in the famous medieval tower of the Toompea Castle, on Toompea hill in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, both of which Kalniņš says are excellent examples of medieval military architecture in Latvia, and the example at Cēsis Castle with the ancient inscription is soon to be opened to the public.
This article (Medieval Inscription Found in Teutonic Knights’ Castle of Cēsis) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.
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Astonishing Neolithic Circle Of 30-Foot “Shafts” Discovered Near Stonehenge
“This is an unprecedented find of major significance within the UK,” said archaeologist Vincent Gaffney.
(TMU) – An international archaeological consortium called the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project says it has unearthed a stunning constellation of monuments very close to Stonehenge. While their purpose is unclear, scientists say the discovery could help to unlock new clues about the sophisticated and complex nature of prehistoric societies.
Led by The University of Bradford and several other institutions, researchers used geophysical surveys and remote sensing technology to discover a 2-kilometer circular pattern of “astonishing” shafts in Durrington Walls. Carbon-dating places the shafts at 2500 B.C. Each one measures around 10 meters (33 feet) and is buried 5 meters (16 feet) below the ground.
Professor Vincent Gaffney of the University of Bradford explains why the discovery is an important one:
“The area around Stonehenge is among the most studied archaeological landscapes on Earth and it is remarkable that the application of new technology can still lead to the discovery of such a massive prehistoric structure which, currently, is significantly larger than any comparative prehistoric monument that we know of in Britain, at least.”
Scientists discovered the circle, or ring of monuments, in the “empty spaces” of the UNESCO World Heritage Site for Stonehenge, one of the most popular prehistoric monuments in the world. It’s also one of the most mysterious, as archaeologists and historians have struggled to determine why the legendary stones were positioned according to the solstices and the sun’s movements in the sky.
The new discovery of shafts–from what scientists believe was probably the Neolithic era–presents another vexing mystery.
“Clearly sophisticated practices demonstrate that the people were so in tune with natural events to an extent that we can barely conceive in the modern world we live in today,” said Richard Bates, from the University of St. Andrews’s School of Earth and Environmental Sciences.
Some researchers believe there could be a cosmological link between the newly discovered circle of monuments and Stonehenge. The circle may have served as a sacred gateway or boundary connected to Stonehenge.
In a press release, the university stated:
“….no comparative prehistoric structure in the UK encloses such a large area as the circle of shafts at Durrington, and the structure is currently unique….The presence of such massive features, and perhaps an internal post line, guided people towards the religious sites within the circle or may have warned those who were not permitted to cross the boundary marked by the shafts.”
Bates adds the new site “is giving us an insight to the past that shows an even more complex society than we could ever imagine.”
The Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project says the discovery will bolster their work to create a detailed archaeological map of the ‘invisible’ landscape of the area. Eventually, they plan to create a digital model of all monuments contained within a “seamless map of sub-surface and surface archaeological features and structures.”
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Prehistoric Australian “Gentle Giant” Identified As A New Species
Jocelyne LeBlanc, Guest Writer
A wombat-like marsupial that was as big as a bear and lived in Australia 25 million years ago during the late Oligocene Period has been identified as a new species. It’s called Mukupirna nambensis (from the Aboriginal words muku which means “bones” and pirna which means “big”) and it is one of the oldest Australian marsupials that have ever been discovered.
In fact, Mukupirna nambensis is the only genus and species of an entirely new family called Mukupirnidae which is part of the vombatiform taxonomic group that includes species such as koalas and wombats. “Koalas and wombats are amazing animals, but animals like Mukupirna show that their extinct relatives were even more extraordinary, and many of them were giants,” stated Dr. Robin Beck from the University of Salford and the lead author of the study.
The well-preserved remains of its skull and partial skeleton were found in 1973 in the clay floor of Lake Pinpa which is a remote, dry salt lake that’s located east of the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. The team was actually very lucky that the remains were found. “It was an extremely serendipitous discovery because in most years the surface of this dry lake is covered by sands blown or washed in from the surrounding hills,” explained Professor Michael Archer from the University of New South Wales and a co-author of the study. He went on to say, “But because of rare environmental conditions prior to our arrival that year, the fossil-rich clay deposits were fully exposed to view – and this unexpected view was breath-taking.”
The creature was at least three to five times bigger than modern wombats and close to the size of a panda as it weighed between 143 and 171 kilograms (315 to 377 pounds). Despite being large in size, the Mukupirna nambensis was a “gentle giant” as it more than likely ate nothing but plants. “It probably lived in an open forest environment without grasses, and developed teeth that would have allowed it to feed on sedges, roots, and tubers that it could have dug up with its powerful front legs,” said Dr. Beck.
The team came up with that conclusion based on the analysis of 79 cranium and teeth samples on its 7.8-inch skull as well as 20 postcranial samples. Interestingly, the specialized molars that are able to continuously grow in modern wombats weren’t present in the Mukupirna nambensis. (Pictures can be seen here.)
In addition to the Mukupirna nambensis, researchers found more skeletal remains at the location. “On the surface, and just below we found skulls, teeth, bones and in some cases, articulated skeletons of many new and exotic kinds of mammals,” Professor Archer explained, adding, “As well, there were the teeth of extinct lungfish, skeletons of bony fish and the bones of many kinds of water birds including flamingos and ducks.” He finished off by stating, “It was an amazingly rich fossil deposit full of extinct animals that we’d never seen before.”
Recommended Articles by Jocelyne LeBlanc
- Smallest Dinosaur Ever Found Preserved In 99-Million-Year-Old Piece Of Amber
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About the Author
Jocelyne LeBlanc works full time as a writer and is also an author with two books currently published. She has written articles for several online websites, and had an article published in a Canadian magazine on the most haunted locations in Atlantic Canada. She has a fascination with the paranormal and ghost stories, especially those that included haunted houses. In her spare time, she loves reading, watching movies, making crafts, and watching hockey.
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