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Geophysicists Discover Vast, Anomalous Structures Embedded In The Earth’s Lower Mantle

Whatever these structures are, they are located 3,000 kilometres below the surface of the Earth in the hellishly hot zone where the outer core meets the lower mantle.

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hysicists Discover Vast,
Photo Credit: PixaBay

(TMU) – A stunning announcement by geophysicists earlier this month suggests the inside of our planet still has many deep mysteries that remain hidden from us under the surface.

A team of researchers using decades of seismographs and an advanced algorithm say they have discovered a series of vast structures embedded in the boundary between the planet’s liquid outer core and the lower mantle.

Scientists arrived at this conclusion by studying the seismographic data from hundreds of earthquakes captured between 1990 and 2018. To analyse all this information, scientists also tapped a machine learning algorithm called Sequencer, which was originally designed to study distant galaxies.

The team prioritized the secondary shear (S) waves from deep in the Earth’s mantle border, as their signals are easier to read than primary (P) earthquake waves.

According to team leader Doyeon Kim, a seismologist and postdoctoral fellow at the University of Maryland,

“We normally like to use S waves because they are larger in amplitude and the data is more or less clean because there is less P wave traffic,” said Kim, noting that such a  wave is also ideal “because it diffracts along that surface, it’s a great phase to look for these tiny structures on top of the core-mantle boundary.”

While scientists already had a hunch that there were large structures yet to be identified, to confirm their existence and study their contours, they needed to chart the journey of the S waves and map the echoing signals created when they intersect with the large unknown masses, called ultra low-velocity zones (ULVZs).

This signal is called a “postcursor”and it is the tell-tale indicator of a ULVZ.

Kim’s team found evidence for two “mega-ULVZs” over 1,000 kilometres in diameter beneath Hawai’i and the Marquesas Islands.

Whatever these structures are, they are located 3,000 kilometres below the surface of the Earth in the hellishly hot zone where the outer core meets the lower mantle.

By looking at thousands of core-mantle boundary echoes at once, instead of focusing on a few at a time, as is usually done, we have gotten a totally new perspective,” said Kim, who was also the lead author of the published paper describing the team’s findings. “This is showing us that the core-mantle boundary region has lots of structures that can produce these echoes, and that was something we didn’t realize before because we only had a narrow view.”

Unsurprisingly, the announcement immediately triggered a flood of conspiratorial speculation online. However, while scientists don’t know the composition of the structures, it is widely believed to be an extremely dense and hot heterogeneous rock.

Scientists believe the further study of these structures will provide us with a better picture of the complex and powerful forces at work inside the Earth. Such information could assist an enhanced understanding of plate tectonics that shaped the geological evolution of our planet.

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Science & Technology

Intuition Is A “Superpower” Representing One Of The Highest Forms Of Intelligence

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Intuition Is A “Superpower” Representing One of The Highest Forms of Intelligence
Photo Credit: Collective Evolution

Mainstream science has been catching on to the fact that non-physical aspects of the human being are not only real, but they can be grown and developed into powerful tools for personal development and use. Non-physical phenomena, like intuition, remote viewingtelepathy, and precognition (to name a few) for example, have been studied at the highest levels of government for decades. Various nations have poured millions if not billions of dollars into these programs for with demonstrated repeated success, but despite this fact these findings remain heavily unacknowledged, ridiculed, “classified” and in many cases chucked in the “pseudoscience” bucket.

It’s understandable, new information and discoveries have always been heavily opposed and “scoffed” at by intellectual authorities, especially if these discoveries don’t fit within the accepted framework of knowledge. There’s a general tendency to dismiss ideas that go against the grain and conflict what we’ve previously convinced ourselves is truth.

So, what exactly is intuition? A good way to describe it is a gut feeling, a sense, or a feeling about something. It’s arriving to some sort of truth about something, an event or experience without using any type of analytic reasoning. Intuition has been measured, which is why the US Office of Naval Research (ONR) admitted to developing methods to develop and measure this phenomenon for their soldiers.

We have to understand what gives rise to this so-called ‘sixth sense,’ says Peter Squire, a program officer in ONR’s Expeditionary Manoeuvre Warfare and Combating Terrorism department. Today’s Navy scientists place less emphasis on trying to understand the phenomena theoretically and more on using technology to examine the mysterious process, which Navy scientists assure the public is not based on superstition. “If the researchers understand the process, there may be ways to accelerate it — and possibly spread the powers of intuition throughout military units,” says Dr. Squire. The Pentagon’s focus is to maximize the power of the sixth sense for operational use. 

As mentioned before, many interesting abilities that go beyond the conscious mind and utilize what some would call metaphysical aspects have long been used by governments and intelligence agencies. Perhaps one day the human race will use these abilities for progress and to better the human experience. It’s like technology, do we use it for the good of humanity or do we use it to build more powerful and destructive bombs and weaponry? This is why we always emphasize that humanity needs a shift in consciousness. Our discoveries and developments don’t really matter, it’s more so the consciousness behind those discoveries that do. This is why we believe that the greatest and most potent form of change comes from within.

Dr. Judith Orloff, MD, Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at UCLA told Forbes that, “In my private practice, I work with women executives who come to me to develop their intuition. They see it as a ‘superpower’ to use in all decisions at work as well as a guide for how to be good leaders and organizers” According to Dr. Orloff, scientists believe intuition operates through the entire right side of our brain, the brain’s hippocampus and through our gut (digestive system has neurons as well).

Alexandra Mysoor, the writer of the Forbes article goes on to explain:

When the neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in your gut fire up, you may be feeling either “butterflies” or queasy sensations. Pay attention to those. It’s no accident we use the term intuition and gut feeling interchangeably because science has now shown us that our gut has a brain of its own, a second brain so to speak. In fact, our gut has an entire network of neurotransmitters called the enteric nervous system.

The body is truly an amazing puzzle, and we probably haven’t moved beyond the tip of the iceberg when it comes to discovering what we are actually capable of. For example, a study (meta-analysis) in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience titled “Predicting the unpredictable: critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity” examined a number of experiments regarding precognition. These experiments indicate that the human body can actually detect randomly delivered stimuli that occur 1-10 seconds in advance. In other words, the human body seems to know of an event and reacts to an event that has yet to occur. What occurs in the human body before these events are physiological changes that are measured in the cardiopulmonary, the skin, and the nervous system.

Pretty cool, isn’t it? Another article written for Forbes written by Bruce Kasanoff by explains,

Intuition, argues Gerd Gigerenzer, a director at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, is less about suddenly “knowing” the right answer and more about instinctively understanding what information is unimportant and can thus be discarded.

Gigerenzer, author of the book Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious, says that he is both intuitive and rational. “In my scientific work, I have hunches. I can’t explain always why I think a certain path is the right way, but I need to trust it and go ahead. I also have the ability to check these hunches and find out what they are about. That’s the science part. Now, in private life, I rely on instinct. For instance, when I first met my wife, I didn’t do computations. Nor did she.”

A paper published in 2008 by Dean Radin, Chief Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS) explains,

Intuition is widely regarded as a key source of inspiration in medical diagnosis, technological innovation, business decisions, artistic achievement, and scientific discovery. Based upon an analysis of the lives of numerous scientific icons, Root-Bernstein concluded that “Virtually without exception, the greatest mathematicians and scientists assert that the development of this pictorial, visual, kinesthetic, or generally sensual algorithm (associated with intuition) is the basis for scientific thinking. But what is intuition? Given its central role in advancing science and civilization, one might expect that this topic has been a keen subject of inquiry, especially within academic psychology, for many decades. Surprisingly, until recently it has been studiously ignored. This may be because the quasi-magical, non-rational nature of intuition presents an embarrassing challenge to science, which prides itself on the power of rational knowing. Intuitive knowledge does not appear to function like the methodical interferences associated with rational thought. It arises “in a flash,” or “out of the blue,” sometimes with correct answers to thorny scientific and technical problems, elegant solutions to complex mathematical theorems, and complete scores for intricate musical compositions.

The Institute of HeartMath alongside Radin conducted an interesting experiment a few years ago. They explain,

Twenty-six adults experienced in using HeartMath techniques and who could sustain a heart-coherent state completed two rounds of study protocols approximately two weeks apart. Half of the participants completed the protocols after they intentionally achieved a heart-coherent state for 10 minutes. The other half completed the same procedures without first achieving heart coherence. Then they reversed the process for the second round of monitoring, with the first group not becoming heart-coherent before completing the protocols and the second group becoming heart-coherent before. The point was to test whether heart coherence affected the results of the experiment.

Participants were told the study’s purpose was to test stress reactions and were unaware of its actual purpose. (This practice meets institutional-review-board standards.) Each participant sat at a computer and was instructed to click a mouse when ready to begin.

The screen stayed blank for six seconds. The participant’s physiological data was recorded by a special software program, and then, one by one, a series of 45 pictures was displayed on the screen. Each picture, displayed for 3 seconds, evoked either a strong emotional reaction or a calm state. After each picture, the screen went blank for 10 seconds. Participants repeated this process for all 45 pictures, 30 of which were known to evoke a calm response and 15 a strong emotional response.

The results of the experiment were fascinating to say the least. The participants’ brains and hearts responded to information about the emotional quality of the pictures before the computer flashed them (random selection). This means that the heart and brain were both responding to future events. The results indicated that the responses happened, on average, 4.8 seconds before the computer selected the pictures.

How mind-altering is that?

Even more profound, perhaps, was data showing the heart received information before the brain. “It is first registered from the heart,” Rollin McCraty Ph.D. explained, “then up to the brain (emotional and pre-frontal cortex), where we can logically relate what we are intuiting, then finally down to the gut (or where something stirs).”

This study showed that the heart, alongside the brain, has some sort of intuitive intelligence.

The Takeaway

We are living in a day and age where new information and evidence are constantly emerging, challenging what we once thought was real or what we think we know about ourselves as human beings. It’s best to keep an open mind. Perhaps there are aspects of ourselves and our consciousness that have yet to be discovered. Perhaps if we learn from this information it can help us better ourselves and others.

We live our lives constantly thinking and analysing, we grow up in school memorizing and we are not really taught anything about our feelings, emotions and intuition. Imagine the difference it would make in our individual and collective lives if we grew up learning how to trust our intuition, how to follow it and what it is? It begs the question, how many of us truly follow our heart? We seem to be thrust into a system that encourages us to find the best job and really think about our future. There’s nothing wrong with that but we have to ask ourselves, what impact does it have on us mentally if we do not follow our heart, our intuition? Are we seeing a big rise in drug use, depression and other mental issues because society forces us to in a direction we really don’t desire to go? Are we unhappy because we are not engaging in things that our heart desires to engage in? Are we not doing enough of what we love? Something to think about. Never ignore the voice of your gut, your heart, your intuition. It’s always telling us something and it’s time we ‘listen.’ This applies to all experiences, from deciphering information and truth to determining what path it is you want to take in life.

This article (Intuition Is A “Superpower” Representing One of The Highest Forms of Intelligence) was originally created for Collective Evolution and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Astronomy

FM Radio Signal Detected Coming From Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede

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FM Radio Signal Detected Coming From Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede
Photo Credit: NASA

Paul SeaburnGuest Writer

Does anyone listen to FM radio anymore? NASA does and it’s a good thing they do – otherwise, we might have missed an FM signal coming from Ganymede, one of the larger moons of Jupiter. What do the residents of Ganymede listen to? Rock? Rap? Techno-pop? Space-age bachelor pad music? Ganymedean folk music?

“Since its first orbit in 2016, Juno has delivered one revelation after another about the inner workings of this massive gas giant. With the extended mission, we will answer fundamental questions that arose during Juno’s prime mission while reaching beyond the planet to explore Jupiter’s ring system and largest satellites.”

Before we do the big reveal, it’s important to note that this is the second time NASA’s the Juno mission has been in the mainstream media this week. First, the space agency announced a mission extension for Juno to September 2025, the projected “best used by” date of the spacecraft. This gives Juno more time to gather close-up data on Jupiter, its rings and three of its largest moons — Ganymede, Europa, and Io. Ganymede is not only its largest moon (bigger that Mercury in size but not mass) but the only one known to have a magnetic field.

Ganymede
What does this have to do with its FM radio signal – you haven’t forgotten about that, have you?

No, not forgotten – just hoping to delay the disappointing news.

It’s not E.T. It’s more of a natural function.”

Not only was the signal natural, the event was so insignificant that the response to the media was delivered by Patrick Wiggins, one of NASA’s Solar System Ambassadors in Utah. These are over 1,000 volunteer ambassadors (you can look yours up here) – many with backgrounds in science, space, teaching, etc. – who engage with the public to communicate information on NASA’s missions. Patrick Wiggins is retired from Utah’s Hansen Planetarium and works part time with the University of Utah Department of Physics and Astronomy. For a more disappointing but interesting observation on the signal, here’s one from Curiosmos.com

“If you need the scientific name, the signal was a “decametric radio emission” but we actually know it by its much more widespread name – Wi-Fi. The range of the frequency corresponds to that used by our Earthly signals.”

Jupiter’s decametric radio emission was first discovered in 1955 by B.F. Burke and K.L. Franklin at the frequency of 22.2 MHz. The current one was detected by Juno while orbiting near Jupiter’s polar regions close to the magnetic field that connects with Ganymede. It’s believed to have been caused by electrons oscillating slower than their normal rate – a process known as cyclotron maser instability. (Possible prog-rock band or album name?)

Before you sulk away dejectedly, this “decametric radio emission” was the first ever detected from Ganymede. While not broadcast from an FM tower by an intelligent life form, a connection could be found in the future – perhaps even from Juno – because Ganymede has an internal ocean that may contain more water than there is on Earth.

In mythology, Ganymede was a Trojan prince desired by Zeus (the Greek Jupiter), who carried him off to be the cupbearer of the gods. Will Ganymede the moon bear the cup of news of extraterrestrial life beyond Earth? It’s up to you, Juno.

Recommended Articles by Paul Seaburn
About the Author

Paul Seaburn is the editor at Mysterious Universe and its most prolific writer. He’s written for TV shows such as “The Tonight Show”, “Politically Incorrect” and an award-winning children’s program. He’s been published in “The New York Times” and “Huffington Post” and has co-authored numerous collections of trivia, puzzles and humour. His “What in the World!” podcast is a fun look at the latest weird and paranormal news, strange sports stories and odd trivia. Paul likes to add a bit of humour to each MU post he crafts. After all, the mysterious doesn’t always have to be serious.

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Astronomy

Evidence To Prove Moon Landings Were Real Goes Completely Missing From NASA

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Evidence To Prove Moon Landings Were Real Goes Completely Missing From NASA
Photo Credit: NASA

Buck RogersGuest Writer

Nearly fifty years after the first moon landing in 1969, many people still wonder if any of the Apollo landings actually happened at all.

The Apollo astronauts who’ve since been asked about their expeditions have maintained the moon landings were legitimate. Astronaut Edgar Mitchell has spoken of his experiences in countless interviews and has always flatly denied the hoax theories. Buzz Aldrin even punched a man in the face for harassing him about whether or not he really walked on the moon.

“Many alternative researchers and sceptics of government and cultural narratives have put together a substantial and rather captivating case that the moon landings were faked with the help of emerging television and film technologies. 

They posit that the government hired acclaimed film director Stanley Kubrick to stage the landings by creating a convincing movie set in a secret location. Evidence to the support the idea that the video is indeed an elaborate forgery includes anomalies such as the appearance of multiple sources of light in the footage, the flag planted by Armstrong seems to be waving in an environment with no wind, there does not appear to be an impact crater from the lunar landing module, unexplainable objects appear in reflection on helmet visors, the unusual slow-motion effect of the astronauts walking on the lunar surface, the lack of visible stars in the background, and more.”Buck Rogers, 2015

Beyond questions about the authenticity of the footage aired on worldwide television, there other parts of the story which to some suggest that the moon landings, as advertised by NASA and the government, were staged events. For example, confusion about how the astronauts were able to safely pass through the Van Allen radiation belts.

These theories won’t go away until some very reasonable questions are answered, something that is less likely to happen with each passing year, especially when you consider that NASA has admitted that the original video footage and telemetry data for the missions is nowhere to be found.

The original recordings of the first humans landing on the moon 40 years ago were erased and re-used, but newly restored copies of the original broadcast look even better, NASA officials said on Thursday.” [Reuters]

Consider that for a moment. Billions of dollar spent on a space race to the moon and after getting there, not only has no one since returned, but telemetric data for the ground-breaking flight is gone.

“I’d go to the moon in a nanosecond. The problem is we don’t have the technology to do that anymore. We used to but we destroyed that technology and it’s a painful process to rebuild it again.”Donald Pettit, Former NASA Astronaut

In the 2005 documentary film, Did We Go?, filmmaker Aron Ranen and crew visited a number of NASA facilities, speaking with high-level NASA scientists, asking them about the missing data. The interviews are revealing, and they make you wonder why such valuable information would be treated so carelessly, or if it the data ever even existed in the first place.

“I haven’t seen anything that indicates the telemetry data is even in existence, and as I said, even if we had it, we don’t have the machines to play it back.” – Gene Kranz, Apollo 11 Flight Director

The film crew also visited NASA’s Goddard Space Center in its hunt for the missing data, speaking with Dr. David Williams, NASA Archivist at Goddard, who confirmed the data is completely missing.

“We’ve been unable to track it down. I mean we don’t know, uh, where this, this telemetry data ended up, and we don’t know what path it may have taken, so, unfortunately I’m afraid I can’t give you much a clue as to where this data ended up and whether it still exists or not.” – Dr. David Williams, NASA Archivist at Goddard

View the following clip for these interviews. The entire film, ‘Did We Go?,’ can be seen here.

Final Thoughts

The moon landing story is suspicious, and when you also factor in the government’s willingness and capacity to shape public opinion on important events with cooperative media and sophisticated propaganda, you wouldn’t be too far out for having questions.

Consider former President Bill Clinton’s statement on this matter, as written in his personal autobiography, My Life:

“Just a month before, Apollo 11 astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong had left their colleague, Michael Collins, aboard spaceship Columbia and walked on the moon…The old carpenter asked me if I really believed it happened. I said sure, I saw it on television. He disagreed; he said that he didn’t believe it for a minute, that ‘them television fellers’ could make things look real that weren’t. Back then, I thought he was a crank. During my eight years in Washington, I saw some things on TV that made me wonder if he wasn’t ahead of his time.” – Bill Clinton, My Life

What do you think the true story is? Are you a believer of a non-believer?

About the Author

Buck Rogers is the earth-bound incarnation of that familiar part of our timeless cosmic selves, the rebel within. He is a surfer of ideals and meditates often on the promise of happiness in a world battered by the angry seas of human thoughtlessness. He is a staff writer for WakingTimes.com.

This article (Evidence to Prove Moon Landings Were Real Goes Completely Missing from NASA) was originally created and published by Waking Times and is published here under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Buck Rogers and WakingTimes.com. It may be re-posted freely with proper attribution, author bio, and this copyright statement.

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Innovation

Report: Electric Cars Could Be Cheaper Than Gas Cars In Just 2 Years

Electric cars are on track to become cheaper than gasoline-powered vehicles in just 2 to 3 years.

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Report: Electric Cars Could Be Cheaper Than Gas Cars In Just 2 Years
Photo Credit: TMU

(TMU) According to a new report by energy research firm BloombergNEF, electric cars are getting cheaper and cheaper each passing year. The research firm found that in just two to three years, electric cars are on track to become cheaper than gasoline-powered vehicles.

According to the report, the market average for Lithium-ion batteries will become just $101 per kWh by 2023. This means that the overall price of the electric vehicle will go down, as the most expensive part of these cars is the battery pack itself.

The report states that Lithium-ion battery pack prices were above $1,100 per kilowatt-hour in 2010. However, they have since gone way down in price as much as 89% in real terms to $137/kWh in 2020.

A survey by BNEF’s 2020 Battery Price Survey, which considers passenger EVs, e-buses, commercial EVs and stationary storage, foretells that by 2023 the average pack price for the batteries will be $101/kWh. The report says that “its at around this price point where automakers should be able to produce and sell mass market EVs at the same price as internal combustion vehicles in some markets.”

The researchers concluded that the prices of electric cars have dropped considerably this year due to “increasing order sizes, growth in [battery electric vehicle] sales and the introduction of new pack designs,” according to the report. New technologies and falling manufacturing costs, it predicts, could drive prices down even lower.

There’s also the chance that next-generation solid-state batteries “could be manufactured at 40% of the cost of current lithium-ion batteries,” according to the report, “when produced at scale.”

The report further predicts that the average prices of battery packs could become as cheap as just $58 per kWh by 2030 if these new solid state batteries were to be utilized resulted from lower manufacturing cost.

James Frith, BNEF’s head of energy storage research and lead author of the report, stated: “It is a historic milestone to see pack prices of less than $100/kWh reported. Within just a few years we will see the average price in the industry pass this point. What’s more, our analysis shows that even if prices for raw materials were to return to the highs seen in 2018, it would only delay average prices reaching $100/kWh by two years – rather than completely derailing the industry. The industry is becoming increasingly resilient to changing raw material prices, with leading battery manufacturers moving up the value chain and investing in cathode production or even mines.”

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