Connect with us

History

Battle Of Visby: Medieval Massacre Leaves Behind Harrowing Remains Of Fallen Soldiers

Published

on

Photo Credit: Gotland Excursion

Ḏḥwty, Ancient Origins

The Battle of Visby was a violent Medieval battle near the town of Visby on the Swedish island of Gotland, fought between the inhabitants of Gotland and the Danes, with the latter emerging victorious. The battle left a lasting archaeological legacy; masses of slaughtered soldiers and citizens lay scattered across what was once a blood battle field. Slashed and broken bones, skeletons still in their chain mail and armour, and smashed skulls, some still with spears and knives protruding out of them. One can only imagine what they endured before they breathed their last breaths.

Visby, A Merchant’s Dream

During the Middle Ages, the island of Gotland, which lies off the coast of Sweden in the Baltic Sea, played an important role in the trade between Europe and Russia. As a result of this, the city of Visby flourished. Since the late 13 th century, Visby was a member of a confederation of North-western and Central European merchant towns later known as the Hanseatic League. This league protected the commercial interests of its members, and was also a defensive pact.

Greedy King Sets His Sight on Visby

As the Hanseatic League grew in influence, it was seen as a threat by some rulers. One of these was Valdemar IV, the King of Denmark. The Danish ruler is said to have not been satisfied with the fact that the Hanseatic League was a rival to his kingdom’s trade interests. In addition, Valdemar desired to get his hands on the wealth of the League’s towns. By the middle of the 14 th century, Visby, although still a member of the Hanseatic League, is said to have decreased in importance, causing Valdemar to set his eyes on it. Additionally, it is rumoured that the inhabitants of the town sang drinking songs mocking the king, thus causing him to hold a personal vendetta against them.

Valdemar Atterdag holding Visby to ransom, 1361 by Karl Gustaf Hellqvist ( public domain )
Valdemar Atterdag holding Visby to ransom, 1361 by Karl Gustaf Hellqvist ( public domain )
The Danes Invade

In the summer of 1361, a Danish army set sail for Gotland. The inhabitants of Visby had been warned about the invading Danish force, and prepared themselves for the battle. In late July 1361, Valdermar’s army landed on the west coast of Gotland. The Danish army numbered between 2000 and 2500 men, and consisted mainly of experienced Danish and German mercenaries. The defending Gotlanders, on the other hand, numbered around 2000, and were militiamen with little or no experience of battle.   

The Battle of Visby  

The Gotlanders first tried to halt the advance of the Danish army at Mästerby, in the central part of the island. The defenders were crushed, and the Danes continued their march towards Visby. The Battle of Visby was fought before the walls of the town. Although the militiamen were fighting for their lives, and fought as best as they could, they were simply no match for the professional Danish army. As a result, the majority of the defenders were killed, and the town surrendered to Valdemar.

Mass Graves and Fallen Soldiers

Those who fell during the battle were buried in several mass graves and were left in peace until the 20 th century. Between 1905 and 1928, the mass graves were discovered and subsequently excavated. More than 1100 human remains were unearthed, and these provide us with much detail about the battle. As an example, the types of weapons used during the Battle of Visby could be determined based on the injuries left on these remains. About 450 of these wounds, for instance, were inflicted by cutting weapons, such as swords and axes, whilst wounds inflicted by piercing weapons, such as spears, and arrows, numbered around 120. By studying the bones, it was also found that at least a third of the defenders of Visby were the elderly, children, or the crippled, an indication that the situation was very dire indeed for townsfolk.

Victim of invasion of Visby in 1361. ( Wolfgang Sauber / CC by SA )
Victim of invasion of Visby in 1361. ( Wolfgang Sauber / CC by SA )
Victim of invasion of Visby in 1361. ( Wolfgang Sauber / CC by SA )
Victim of invasion of Visby in 1361. ( Wolfgang Sauber / CC by SA )

It is assumed that the dead were buried quickly after the battle, and therefore were interred with the equipment they had during the battle, which included their armour and weapons. Thanks to their excellent state of preservation, these remains are a unique archaeological find. Although not many of the defenders were well-equipped for the battle, there are several examples of chainmail shirts, coifs, gauntlets, and a variety of weapons. These incredible remains, along with the human remains, are today displayed in the Gotland Museum and remain as a lasting legacy to the defenders of Visby.

Armored glove found at Visby. Photo: Gabriel Hildebrand .
Armored glove found at Visby. Photo: Gabriel Hildebrand .

This article (Battle Of Visby: Medieval Massacre Leaves Behind Harrowing Remains Of Fallen Soldiers) was originally published at Ancient Origins and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.

Please SHARE this article with your family and friends.

Alien

A Question About Extraterrestrials On Everybody’s Mind: Are They A Threat?

Published

on

A Question About Extraterrestrials On Everybody’s Mind: Are They A Threat?
Photo Credit: Collective Evolution

The idea, as said by Lord Admiral Hill Norton that “we are being visited and have been visited” by “people” from other planets, solar systems, galaxies and perhaps more is a hypothesis that’s now accepted by millions of people on our planet. I’ve come to this conclusion after studying the UFO phenomenon as well as the extraterrestrial hypothesis for the past 15 years.

Modern day mainstream media coverage has also sparked interest among people who once thought the idea that “UFOs” are real was a “conspiracy theory,” most notably a New York Times article regarding Dr. Eric Davis earlier this year. Davis is a renowned astrophysicist who worked within the Pentagon UFO program. He, according to the article, gave a classified briefing to a Defence Department Agency about retrievals from “off world vehicles not made on this Earth.” CNN also aired an interesting clip of Ex-Defence official Christopher Mellon mentioning this incident.

There was an interesting leak that dealt with Dr. Davis a couple of years ago that involved Apollo 14’s Dr. Edgar Mitchell, which was confirmed by Mitchell, among others in Dr. Steven Greer’s film, “Unacknowledged.” It’s one of multiple leaks suggesting that, in some high level circles, it’s already known that many of these objects are indeed extraterrestrial, and/or extradimensional in origin.

What’s important to mention is that there are several accounts of supposed retrievals from off world vehicles that have most likely been made over the past several decades. The Davis example spoken about in the New York Times does not seem to be an isolated incident and I’ve come across many supposed incidents over the course of my research. This isn’t surprising given the evidence suggesting that governments have been desperate to capture this type of technology over the years.

A large lack of trust for mainstream media has some people confused and worried that there is the possibility for those who control media to shape our perception of the topic, or at least telling the complete truth about a phenomenon that goes much deeper than the examples and cases that are and will receive coverage in mainstream media, I believe.

How we collectively perceive this phenomenon is important, and there may be some powerful people atop this trail of secrecy who, like with many other topics, attempt to shape our perception of what is and has been going on for a very long time in order to benefit from that perception manipulation in some way.

It’s also interesting to note how there is and has been a long and “official campaign of ridicule and secrecy” (Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter, Director of Central Intelligence (1947-50), signed statement to Congress, 22 Aug. 1960) that has surrounded this subject for years, making the idea that these objects represent some sort of fake type of deception by some elite group obsolete. Those who want to legitimize something false as real do not ridicule it and label it a conspiracy theory; they legitimize it using the tremendous resources they have, like mainstream media, at their disposal. This has not been the case for the UFO issue over the years.

Not only are these objects real, but they’ve been spotted, recorded and tracked on radar performing manoeuvres no known manmade air-craft can perform.

The mainstream has yet to dive into the evidence available which points to the idea that many of these objects are probably extraterrestrial, they seem to be staying away from that confirmation for now, but they have come a long way from ridiculing it which should raise some questions. Why now? Are some groups of people trying to use UFO disclosure in the same way they’ve used the “war on drugs” or the “war on terror?” To benefit off of it in some selfish type of way? These are important questions to ask.

Again, having researched this topic for many years I can tell you that there is indeed “abundant evidence that…civilizations have been visiting us for a very long time.” (Dr. Brian O’leary, Ex NASA Astronaut, Princeton Physics Professor)

The phenomenon has huge implications, and as I’ve said in many of my articles it leaves no aspect of humanity untouched. From science, to technology, history, parapsychology and much more – all are affected by the reality of the ET phenomenon. Greater coverage and honesty about the subject will change human consciousness forever, and provide insights into aspects of our reality that we were once not aware of.

If you’re willing to accept that we are being visited, a common question that seems to come next is, are they a threat? Obviously, as of now we don’t really have an answer that everybody would agree with.

It seems the more you dive into the lore of the phenomenon the less you know, but with recent mainstream media UFO disclosure I’ve observed a strong “threat” narrative. This confuses me, given the fact that from the information and incidents that have been declassified and made available to the public, these objects are predominately performing evasive manoeuvres to avoid our own air-craft. This has been a common theme, in 1947 General Nathan Twining, who at the time was Chief of Staff for the United States Air Force described them as “evasive” and so did former Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer in 2008. Statements like these corroborate with UFO encounters that have spanned the past several decades and make up the bulk of declassified incidents by multiple governments.

This does not mean those who control these objects are “good” or “bad,” it simply calls into question why they would be perceived as a threat if most of the evidence suggests otherwise.

I’ve come across very little, practically nothing, that hints to the idea that these objects represent a great threat. Perhaps curious, and possibly intrusive may be better words to use, but to imply that there is a threat here seems to be irresponsible. Sure, if you’re looking to get some attention perhaps the only way to do it would be to present the phenomenon as a threat, but I believe we should be presenting things as they are. Some people even believe a false flag alien invasion to be a possibility.

What we have here is a phenomenon worthy of serious study and investigation.

It’s also important to mention that right now with mainstream UFO disclosure, we are getting a wiped down or sanitized version of the phenomenon. There are tens of thousands of cases and sighting reports that can be found within the literature over the past seventy plus years, yet the cases we are receiving from organizations like To The Stars, for example, don’t even represent a fraction of what’s been observed. Again, this makes it easy to generalize and come to false conclusions given the fact that any case released by this organization will be the focal point of attention within the mainstream media.

There’s decent evidence suggesting that these objects have been around for a very long time. From ancient cave paintings to Vedic scriptures, indigenous lore, all the way to military agencies tracking these objects. If there were any sort of threat posed by these objects, or some sort of harmful intentions on a big scale, I feel it would have already manifested by now and we would have already witnessed some type of disturbing event. Maybe I’m wrong?

Furthermore, evidence suggesting that multiple governments have been desperate to capture this type of technology lends to the conclusion that perhaps, in some cases, it’s not that easy for these objects to enter into our atmosphere given the fact that, if spotted or tracked on radar they’ll be subjected to some type of reconnaissance or “take down” mission. This is probably a rare success given the capabilities that these objects have been seen to possess, but it wouldn’t be surprising to me if the protocol was to “shoot first and ask questions after.” (Hellyer, 2008)

Beyond UFOs, Actual Extraterrestrial Encounters

When one goes beyond studying the behaviour of these objects and into stories of actual extraterrestrial encounters, things become a little cloudy. The literature and lore from all places, including modern day abduction accounts, simple contact experiences, indigenous stories and more suggest these beings, or at least some of them, are concerned about us, care about us, and want to see us and all life on our planet thrive. At least that’s one perspective.

For example, the case in Zimbabwe where more than 60 school children witnessed an object as well as beings during recess at their school. This was an interesting case, given the fact that at the time all 60 children drew the exact same pictures while recalling the event, and told the exact same stories. Some of them experienced telepathic messages about Earth’s future and where we will be if we don’t turn our behaviour around.

Another example would be testimony from high ranking military personnel like Colonel Ross Dedrickson providing examples of extraterrestrials deactivating nuclear weapons sent out into space, and the apparent help they provided to the crew of Apollo 13, emphasizing that some of these beings care about the wellbeing of our planet.

The list of friendly tales of extraterrestrial contact is long, and the idea that there are different groups observing us, encouraging us, and warning us of our own behaviour and want to see us turn it around and wake up to seems to be quite common.

This wouldn’t be surprising to me. If we look at all life on our planet there’s one thing all of it has in common, and there is an ability to experience feelings, emotions, altruism, love and empathy, and the desired to be cared for. It’s safe to assume that these characteristics extend beyond life on our planet and into life on other planets as well.

On the other hand, some abduction accounts paint a different picture. Reports of people being held against their will terrified and subjected to unpleasant procedures like they were some sort of lab specimen doesn’t really sit well with most people. Stories of alien human hybrid programs and the supposed takeover of our planet in the works paint a dark picture of some sort of take over agenda. What seems to rub me the wrong way is, again, the evidence suggesting “they’ve” been around longer than we have. If this were to take place I believe it already would have happened, and abduction experiences only account for a portion of this phenomenon. We understand very little about them and the intentions behind them.

What clouds this particular portion of the phenomenon is that some of these abduction experiences may be completely fake given that many are recalled during hypnotic regression. Not to say that this isn’t reliable, it very well could be, but we cannot say for sure and there are a lot of issues with it. Secondly, there are multiple credible sources suggesting that some of these forced “abductions” may in fact be some sort of military/mind control operations and experiments, like Dr. Jacques Valle. In his book, “Forbidden Science 4,” Valle explains how he came in possession documents showing that forced “UFO abductions” were conducted by the CIA as psychological warfare experiments. You can read more about that here.

So are they a threat? I don’t know, if we look at the human race as an example and expand out, there are many “good” humans and “bad” humans on our planet. That is to say, some who cause harm and disrupt harmony, and many who bring harmony and create a more peaceful environment. But, we are destroying our planet, and the way we treat other species and other people needs a lot of work. Love, care, empathy, awareness and a greater understanding of who we are and the relationship we have with all life needs to be stepped up. But our faults do not make us “bad.” You would think an intelligent observer looking down on our planet would perceive us as “bad” given what we do to our planet and how many people die every day unnecessarily. But perhaps they see the “good” side as well, our ability to love, care, be empathetic and many people’s desire to create a human experience where all people thrive. Perhaps we are just playing out a human narrative built on separation, and that a new narrative built on connection is what we are evolving towards.

If another intelligent being was observing us, our planet may actually seem quite scary, violent and unpleasant.

It’s a philosophical question with no clear answer, but as far as some sort of alien invasion or war of the world’s scenario that’s often been portrayed by Hollywood, I deeply feel that’s something we don’t have to worry about, but again, I don’t know.

The bizarre UFO crash at dreamy draw, Arizona. (Click here to read the full article!)

What I do know is that it’s human nature to explore, ask questions and discover more about ourselves and the nature of reality. At this point in time, many of us have been pushed heavily into a life of school, work, and providing for our families. The human experience doesn’t easily encourage the freedom for all us to simply explore, ponder ask questions and discover, but we are still doing it. Recognizing, examining and exploring “others” who are visiting us seem to be the next step and represents the next “paradigm buster” of our existence.

I feel there is so much about ourselves we have yet to discover. I feel our plant has all the solutions it needs to thrive, but we simply need to do a better job of identifying and solving why these solutions are never implemented. There is a lot of deception on our planet, but there is also a lot of good, and perhaps there is some good out there too?

Human consciousness is rapidly changing, and extraterrestrial contact is one small but large part of this massive shift in human consciousness we are experiencing. Why do we live like we do when we could truly thrive?

This article (A Question About Extraterrestrials On Everybody’s Mind: Are They A Threat?) was originally created for Collective Evolution and is published here under Creative Commons.

Please SHARE this article with your family and friends.

Continue Reading

Archeology

Melting Stone With Plants: Was The Mythical ‘Green Chisel’ A Real Ancient Tool?

Published

on

Melting Stone With Plants: Was the Mythical 'Green Chisel' A Real Ancient Tool?
Photo Credit: Anjocreatif

Archaeology is not an exact science. It is full of doubts, uncertainties, surprises, and unanswered questions. One of its unsolved mysteries concerns the methods of ancient stone work, which is lost in the mists of time. All existing stones, listed in the Mohs Scale according to their hardness – from the 1st degree (softest, talc), to the 10th (hardest, diamond) – are workable with tools made of something harder than them. This means they are worked and altered with a mineral tool with a higher degree of hardness, or more often with a metal tool.

From the 1st to the 6th degree (mostly calcareous stones), copper or bronze tools are enough. But for stones from the 7th upwards (much harder and mostly siliceous) we need iron or steel tools. In this article, we are interested in the examples of how ancient stoneworkers worked the oldest, hardest stones.

Why the Hardest Stones?

Many of these finds date back to periods or geographical contexts where iron did not exist: i.e. in the Old World before 1200 BC and in the New World before the Conquest. Nevertheless, surprisingly, just the hardest stones were used by ancient peoples in those situations – and with great skill and extremely sophisticated workmanship. Indeed, it seems that they were even preferred, despite the difficulties in working them (during which, moreover, they can chip badly). It was as if shaping them was commonplace for the ancient stonemasons.

We have emeralds, quartzes, obsidian jewels, and amulets with very fine incisions and carvings; slender vases in syenite with very thin sides with a smooth, impeccable finish; the cup of King Narmer, in porphyry; diorite tablets with bas-reliefs on a perfectly smooth background, and long texts in minute hieroglyphic or cuneiform characters, traced with perfect graphics, without smudges, as if they had been stamped rather than carved.

And then there’s the disquieting geometries in diorite of Puma Punku, of maniacal rigor and the incredible puzzles of the Peruvian walls (and Egyptian and Japanese walls too), with millimetre-precision junctions between the immense andesite blocks with 20, 30, or even 40 corners. There are also basaltic boulders three meters high as the grandiose Olmec heads. The 70-ton granite blocks with very clear cuts, that were emptied to create the sarcophagi of the Serapeum of Saqqara, whose even the internal surfaces are as smooth as the outer ones, are another marvel. The shiny cylinders of ‘carrots’ also appear to be dug into granite by drills that seemed to have been as fast as their modern counterparts.

All this work was done by ancient stonemasons on hard siliceous rocks – up to the 8th or 9th degree of the Hardness Scale.

They made vases with smooth finishes and bas-reliefs without smudges, as if they had been stamped rather than carved. (Heagy1 / CC BY-SA 4.0)

None of this, in theory, was feasible by just muscular strength and with the ancient tools in the archaeological record. The stone workers apparently manipulated hard stone with a high degree of skill – but they were without strong saws, bits, special steel drills, and motor-powered tools. It simply seems impossible. But how did they do it? With what?

Inferences and Theories

Obviously, that inexplicable technical perfection has generated a lot of inferences and theories of every kind, many of which arbitrarily transpose means, methods, and knowledge of today into the most distant past. We see a hypothesis suggesting stone was ground, mixed with water, and cast into molds (with a disproportionate expenditure of energy). In another one, the stone is said to be softened by a mix of sour plant juices and shaped, then it would harden.

Other suggestions say the ancient people used lasers, radioactivity and so on, or that they had very advanced machines provided by a mysterious lost civilization. And, of course, there’s the hypothesis that the work was done with the assistance of aliens. But no evidence has ever been found for such devices.

To this technological enigma, excluding fanciful speculations, I intend to offer an explanation in line with ‘Occam’s razor’: with all factors being equal, the solution to a problem is the simplest one.

Using Acid to Work the Hardest Stones

The thesis is that the only practical system available to act on the mentioned minerals, refractory to (or unmanageable by) physical action, was chemistry – specifically exploiting the natural capacity of certain elements to break down other materials due to their incompatibility; incompatible chemical principles put in contact with each other will react by destroying each other. That is, to cause a guided reaction, and to stop it at the right time: the stone would be disintegrated by treating it with a corrosive substance (one incompatible with it) that chemically attacked it, instead of, or before tools were used on it.

In short, an acidic chemical would do most (or part) of the work necessary to produce the desired effect – all while saving time, effort, and material. This, as we shall see, was entirely within the reach of the ancient craftsmen, even if it is not clear how they came to understand that natural phenomenon and its possible advantageous uses.

The fact is that this intuition was, apparently, operatively implemented, and in a very simple and not at all mysterious way. Because – unlike other proposed solutions – the acid does not change the structure of the stone, but literally liquefies it and, if carefully managed, it can eliminate from a block all the superfluous parts (or materials) not included in the project design.

Acid-Washed Stone – a common treatment to show the beauty of a stone without cutting and polishing. (cobalt123 / CC BY-SA 2.0)

The difference compared to manual tools is that it does it without friction – it’s done at the atomic level . That’s all.

We have both direct (material) and indirect (immaterial) clues of the reliability of this hypothesis.

Direct clues are the concrete evidence of the use of that method in artifacts and buildings. The results of the process described above are stunning when they are observed with the naked eye.

But I have no doubt that when they are enlarged under a microscope they would show the uniformity of a ‘controlled dissolution’ made by an acid even in the hardest parts of the stone to reach. This is in contrast to scratches which would have been made by metal tools. As a ‘chemical chisel,’ acid can creep everywhere.

As I said above, there is no archaeological evidence for modern technologies and tools used in the ancient past. But acid has always existed in nature. If we wanted to, we could still use it today.

With it, we could – drop by drop – engrave and pierce precious stones, create the empty cavity of a vase and smooth its sides, model statues, and even make coffins out of huge granite blocks. Layer by layer the acid would consume the inside of the stone and smooth it; or, if we wanted to mark it instead, we could cover it with a film of wax (which doesn’t react to it), scratch away the wax in areas we wanted to mark the stone, and then pour acid on those areas.

This could explain how Moses engraved the Tables of the Law, as the Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 48b,  describes how Shamìr is used to cut stone. To write on stone at that time, it would make sense that Moses used the same method of first marking the letters with ink, then passing Shamìr over them, and then they were engraved.

Did Moses engrave the Tables of the Law with acid? (James Steidl / Adobe)

By penetrating natural fissures with acid, we could remove boulders from their rocky bed and cut them as we wish. And maybe we could use it in the building industry in the form of a corrosive paste or mortar which disappeared after having eaten away the roughness and smoothed away the differences in height between boulders. It would eliminate the space needed for joints and give the structure the appearance of a dry-stone wall.

I believe this was the only way that it was possible for the ancient stonemasons to work very hard silicon-based stones. It would also be used for softer stones like limestone, marble, and alabaster, since the same acid also attacks all other types of stone. Indeed it attacks every material except gold, lead, and wax.

For us, it is important because it is the only natural solvent for silicon – and that aspect allows us to identify it with certainty because there is nothing else capable of so much. It is hydrofluoric acid (chemical symbol HF), one of the most aggressive, extremely reactive, caustic, and poisonous chemicals. The ancient stonemasons used that. That was their secret tool.

Sourcing the Secret Stonework Tool

But how did they get it? What did they extract it from?

Indirect clues will indicate its origin. Ancient legends speak of a magical ‘something’ that could weaken or destroy every type of stone: a ‘something’ that, from time immemorial, was reserved for the mighty ones and unknown to everyone else. But at a certain moment, it was replaced by iron, abandoned, and eventually forgotten. That’s how things happened in the Old World at least; in the New one, history handed it over to oblivion.

There isn’t much to tell though.

There is a transient reference to the ‘farr’ of Persian king Zal which was a symbol of his celestial investiture, which acted as HF. Another, no less scanty reference mentions an obscure ‘plant mixture’ conceived by Egyptian scholars to soften stone. This was perhaps the same ‘unknown cement’ that was thick as a sheet of paper and that the Arab scholar Abd el-Latif (12th century) said connected the stones of the Great Pyramid, in which some ‘plant residues’ have recently been found. This is all from Egypt, although there traces of the technique abound.

Instead, we find a lot of data (certainly from Egyptian sources) in myths and texts, including the Bible, of ancient Israel, however there this discovery – a gift of God, which later disappeared – was only used twice. The Jews called it Shamir.

Was unknown cement used in the construction of the Great Pyramid? (primavera108 / Adobe)
Shamír

The first time Shamir was used was to engrave the Tables of the Law and the names of the 12 tribes on the gems of priestly vestments. The second time was to cut the stones of the Temple of Solomon as God commanded: these were calcareous stones, but the gems were almost all siliceous, which confirms that Moses used hydrofluoric acid – Shamìr.

The description of its appearance is rather vague and ambiguous, but its behavior isn’t. It worked the hardest stones and left perfect, smooth, residue-free surfaces; it had to be kept in a lead basket (an airtight vase would have exploded), and insulated with wool and bran; it had heavy collateral effects (it scalded Moses and poisoned and killed the Temple workers); in the long run it became inactive.

This is the unequivocal picture of the action of that powerful acid, but it does not help us to understand its origin and nature.

Excluding that it was, as hypothesized, mineral (diamond) or animal (worm), maybe it was plant-based?

Some writings related to Shamìr warn not to identify it with Euforbia, a stinging shrub; but why would they do that, if not because it was also a plant? And unfortunately, the information stops there.

Connecting Shamír and the Pito of Peru

But the astonishing answer comes, unexpectedly, from distant Peru, where oral tradition says ever since the ‘ancients’ started to assemble the stones of their huge walls, they used the mysterious Pito, a plant that was described as a low creeping grass with red leaves.

The tradition affirms that Pito or, rather, it’s extract, is capable of melting every stone (the explorer Percy Fawcett talks about an amphora stolen from an Inca tomb, incidentally broken, and of how the liquid leaked out and dissolved the stone below) and iron too. It also declares that – as God had given Israel Shamir to work on the Temple – the local gods had once given men, in order to alleviate their labors, two plants: coca and Pito; not to be confused, however, with the caustic Efedra. Does it remind us of something?

Archaeologists still argue as to how the precise stonework found in places such as Cusco in Peru was achieved. (CC BY 2.0)

Jewish myths mention a wild rooster that used Shamìr to make many small holes in rocks in which to plant trees. In Peru they also associate Pito with a bird which, according to several witnesses, is accustomed to rubbing the leaves of the plant onto rocks with its beak: this softens the stone, in which then it digs itself a nest.

But there’s more. The wild rooster also used Shamìr to erode the glass slab placed upon its nest covering its little ones and the Peruvian bird did exactly the same with the Pito herb, but that slab was made of iron.

These similar narratives cannot be pure coincidence. In different contexts, these birds are apparently using two distinct corrosive chemical agents which act in exactly the same way in the stories. So, on both sides of the ocean, we have two elements with common characteristics and the same range of action: the unique capacity to attack silicon.

And now everything can be reduced to a simple syllogism: if two factors have the same effect on a third, it means that they are equal. Even the legends tell the same story. In short, the active component of Pito and Shamìr was the same.

Moreover, from the descriptions we have established that Shamir was HF and that Pito was a plant; therefore HF was derived from a plant. Ultimately both those substances – Pito and Shamìr – were actually only one with the same formula: hydrofluoric acid, HF, which was extracted from plants. However, they were probably not of the same species because the same plants do not grow in the two geographical areas.

But it is also true that over 40 plants of various species have high contents of the poisonous HF, which they absorb from soil and synthesize, to protect themselves from herbivores, in the form of a compound called fluoroacetic acid.

And to extract hydrofluoric acid from fluoroacetic acid is no more difficult than to make tea: you just have to boil the plant in water, distill the solution, and then concentrate it. HF dissolved in water is manageable, very carefully, at room temperature.

Shamìr/Pito: Continents Apart, Techniques in Common

At this point it is relevant to identify Shamìr and Pito with the richest HF spontaneous plants.

The most probable suspects are Dichapetalum in Africa and Palicourea in South America (coincidentally, the areas of our interest). Both of them are not very attractive and of little economic value, having no known uses (only as a rat poison for Dichapetalum). Today they are not the object of any particular attention.

But, in the mists of time, the discovery of their special virtue, exploited in various ways according to their availability and needs, enabled the first civilizations to create and advance in epigraphy, sculpture, and architecture.

In Peru and Bolivia, where Palicourea abounds, it was used directly and in abundance in the pre-Inca building industry. In Egypt and outside Africa, I believe that only the acid derived from Dichapetalum was used to carry out smaller, expensive works.

Dichapetalum plant. (Vinayaraj / CC BY-SA 3.0 

Who by, where, and when that precious resource was identified is not known and the “how” is perhaps trivial. Maybe the ancient peoples really noticed what the birds were doing or they saw the action of the plants themselves. Regardless, ancient craftsmen learned from experience, and, as they had learned to use fire, water, and wind energy, they also discovered plant or animal juices that melted stones, healed, or killed. They observed that strength, realized its potential, and put it to good use.

Yet the real mystery is not how that knowledge was acquired, nor who transmitted it to whom, but how it travelled between such distant continents. Because, if it is impossible to believe in a coincidence like that shown by myths, it is equally impossible to understand its path unless we rethink the past on very different terms. But this is another story to be investigated elsewhere.

I wish I could demonstrate the validity of this hypothesis by giving it proof and concrete and irrefutable evidence. Modern science can do it. I would like those who have asked the same questions about these mysteries to join me in this research and finally give credit to the skills and knowledge of those who preceded us.

This article (Melting Stone With Plants: Was the Mythical ‘Green Chisel’ A Real Ancient Tool?) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

Please SHARE this article with your family and friends.

Continue Reading

Bizarre

“Witch Marks” Found In Medieval Church Were To Keep Evil Spirits Away

Published

on

WEIRD ANTI-WITCH MARKS DISCOVERED AT 700-YEAR-OLD MEDIEVAL CHURCH IN ENGLAND
Photo Credit: http://creativevisionspublications.com/

Jocelyne LeBlancGuest Writer

Ancient graffiti called “witch marks” were discovered in the ruins of a medieval church in the English village of Stoke Mandeville and they were put there in order to keep evil spirits away.

St. Mary’s church was constructed around the year 1070 as a private chapel for the lord of Stoke Mandeville in Buckinghamshire, England. It was renovated in the 1340s which made it bigger so that locals could also attend the church. But then in the 1860s when a new church was built, St. Mary’s was demolished.

“Witch marks” found on the medieval stones of St. Mary’s church in Stoke Mandeville, England (Image: © HS2 Ltd)

It was during the preparations for the construction of a new high-speed railway that revealed the ancient marks in the ruins of the church. The village, as well as the church, are directly in the path of where the tracks will be.

While archaeologists were excavating the church site, they found the remains of walls measuring about five feet in height as well as intact flooring. The most interesting discovery was stone beams that had very peculiar markings on them. The odd circular patterns that are called “witch marks” resembled wheel spokes with a hole that was put in the center with several lines spreading out from it. In fact, they found two different stones that contained those markings – one of them was on the ground level while the other was at an elevated location.

More “witch marks” carved into the stones of St. Mary’s church. (Image credit: HS2 Ltd)

Those types of radial markings were also used as sundials to divide the day up with morning, mid-day, and evening prayers. However, since one of the stones was found at the ground level, its purpose was more than likely to protect the location against evil. In a statement, the project officials explained them as being put there to “ward off evil spirits by entrapping them in an endless line or maze”.

A CG rendering of what St. Mary’s looked like in its prime, 700 years ago. (Image credit: HS2 Ltd)

These “witch marks” have been found at other medieval locations around the United Kingdom and were normally etched into stones near entrances, fireplaces, and windows to stop evil forces from entering. And they’re not just found in churches as the etchings have been discovered in houses, barns, and even caves.

Recommended Articles by Jocelyne LeBlanc
About the Author

Jocelyne LeBlanc works full time as a writer and is also an author with two books currently published. She has written articles for several online websites, and had an article published in a Canadian magazine on the most haunted locations in Atlantic Canada. She has a fascination with the paranormal and ghost stories, especially those that included haunted houses. In her spare time, she loves reading, watching movies, making crafts, and watching hockey.

Please SHARE this article with your family and friends.

Continue Reading

Alien

An Oxford Professor, Global Warming, And Alien-Human Hybrids

Published

on

Photo Credit: TMU

Brent SwancerGuest Writer

A truly fringe and controversial subject within the field of ufology is that of alien-human hybrids. There are certain factions of the field who feel that, for whatever reasons, that alien entities are experimenting to mix human and alien DNA to create strange new beings. It all sounds like something out of a science fiction novel, but there is much discussion on just this going on, no matter how absurd it might sound. Mostly this is all regulated to the far fringes of the UFO field, but on occasion it comes blasting to the forefront, and this is certainly the case with an Oxford professor who claims that aliens are interbreeding with us to help save us from the end of the world.

It’s rare that you see the very fringe, outlandish idea of aliens hybridizing with humans taken seriously in the slightest bit by an academic, but that is oddly exactly what happened recently with an Oxford University professor by the name of Dr. Young-Hae Chi, a teacher of Korean at Oxford’s Oriental Institute. Since at least 2012 he has been lecturing on the idea that aliens are not only already here amongst us, where they remain invisible to our eyes, but that there are more than one species of the extraterrestrials and they are interbreeding with us and mixing amongst us.

Dr. Young-hae Chi

According to Dr. Chi, there are four main types of aliens here on Earth living among us as we speak, which he describes as “Small; tall and bold; aliens with scales and snake eyes; and finally, insect-like.” It is these insectoid aliens that he believes are the bosses, and outrank all other types. They are also the ones behind the supposed hybrid programs, wherein human and alien DNA are mixed in top secret experiments. He has also said that abducted humans are routinely forced to engage in “sexually oriented actions with aliens or even other human abductees under the influence of mind control.” And why would they do this, you ask? Well, according to him it is due to several reasons, but chief among them is because they are trying to find a way to help us survive through the catastrophic escalation of global warming in recent years. He has written of this in his book Alien Visitations and the End of Humanity:

One possibility is that they find our DNA valuable for the preservation of the stock. Secondly, to create species which can survive in the future climate conditions. Thirdly, some abductees report that these hybrids are of a very high intelligence, so are they producing these hybrids as a problem-solver, a future leader? It may be more or less assumed that the hybrid project is a response to the impending demise of human civilization. Not only scientists and theologians, but also non-human species who appear to be greatly concerned about the survivability of the human species. So, they come not for the sake of us, but for the sake of them, their survival, but their survival is actually our survival as well — the survival of the entire biosphere. Judging from the way the ETs are acting, they have a better view of our future, perhaps it is pointing to a pessimistic future.

He says that these aliens are all around us, but that we cannot see them for reasons he remains fairly vague about. He says that they are basically invisible to us most of the time, only choosing to show themselves to those they abduct, and has claimed:

If they are far, they shouldn’t be concerned about us.  I don’t think they are from far away, they are just next to us, we can’t see them. We can use an analogy of fish which can think and perceive things only in the way they can and humans also perceive only in the way we can, so our perception of the world is limited by our organs.

As far as the hybrids are concerned, Dr. Chi has quite a bit of lore to offer on them, describing how they look more human-like with subsequent generations, saying “The first-generation hybrids still have physical features distinctive to aliens. But from the second generation … they have almost indistinguishable bodily features from those of humans, although they may still carry at least one fourth of alien genes.” Much of his hypothesis is additionally based on thousands of interviews he says he has conducted with alien abductees over the years. He even claims that the increase in UFO sightings and abductee reports in recent years directly correlates with the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, as this has sped up the need for them to create a “new model of Homo sapiens.” Of course he is aware of the scepticism these claims bring, and he has said of this:

Flying Saucers and Giant Aliens described in a possible declassified FBI file. (Click here to read the full article!)

As you might expect, most scientists are dubious. After all, there’s never been any good evidence that the abductions are taking place. No one seems to bring along a cell phone to make photos, or pocket an artifact from the saucers.

Dr. Chi has nevertheless held tight to his bonkers theory that aliens are implementing a breeding program to save us from the rigors of global climate change, and you can watch one of his far-out lectures on the matter here. Is there anything to this, or is this just the delusional rantings and sci-fi imaginings of an out-of-touch individual? Whatever you may think, Dr. Chi continues to stand by his hypothesis and writes and speaks on it extensively. Is any of this worth looking into at all? In the end it remains a curious piece of strangeness to add to the pile of the already truly bizarre area of alien-human hybrids, and it is a wild ride whether real or not.

Recommended Articles by Brent Swancer
About the Author

Is an author and crypto expert living in Japan. Biology, nature, and cryptozoology still remain Brent Swancer’s first intellectual loves. He’s written articles for MU and Daily Grail and has been a guest on Coast to Coast AM and Binnal of America.

Please SHARE this article with your family and friends.

Continue Reading
Advertisement report this ad
Advertisement report this ad

Trending Now

STAY AWARE

Subscribe To Our Newsletter

You have Successfully Subscribed!